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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae) -- Pea

Identifier

022049

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae) -- Pea


Chemicals

(R)-DIHYDRO-MALEIMIDE Shoot 67 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(R)-DIHYDRO-MALEIMIDE-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Shoot 62 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-3-(4,5-DIHYDRO-FURANONE)-5-(HYDROXY-METHYL)-PYRROLE-2-CARBOXYALDEHYDE Cotyledon: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-O-FERULOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Petiole: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-O-P-COUMAROYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Petiole: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-O-SINAPOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Petiole: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

14-HENTRIACONTANOL Wax: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

15-HENTRIACONTANOL Wax: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

16-HENTRIACONTANOL Wax: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,3,9-TRIMETHOXYPTEROCARPAN Embryo: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,4-METHYLENE-CHOLESTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-HYDROXY-2,9-DIMETHOXYPTEROCARPAN Embryo: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4,4'-DIHYDROXY-2'-METHOXY-CHALCONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-HYDROXY-2,3,9-TRIMETHOXYPTEROCARPAN Embryo: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5'-O-(6-O-MALONYL-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYL)-PYRIDOXINE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5'-O-(6-O-{3-HYDROXY-3-METHYL-4-CARBOXY-BUTANOYL}-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYL)PYRIDOXINE Sprout Seedling 39 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5'-O-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYL-PYRIDOXINE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R ; Antidepressant MAR ; Antidote (Manganese) to 3 g/man/day MAR ; Antimutilation MAR ; Antiparkinsonian MAR ; Antitourette 400 mg/4x/day/orl/man MAR ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cerebrophilic JBH ; Hypertensive JPP42:35 ; Insecticide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Secretogogue JPP42:35 ; Spasmogenic PM56(6):688 ; Ulcerogenic JPP42:125 ; Vasoconstrictor JPP42:125

ABSCISIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANINE Fruit 580 - 5,737 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,400 - 11,353 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 313 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALLANTOIN Shoot: DUKE1992A

Antidandruff ALH ; Antiinflammatory JE26:82 ; Antioxidant X12058360 ; Antipeptic 30-130 mg/man/day 25th ; Antipsoriac 2% MAR ; Antiradicular X12058360 ; Antiulcer JE26:82 ; Immunostimulant DUKE1992B ; Keratolytic MAR ; Sunscreen 0.1% AllHerb1998 ; Suppurative DUKE1992B ; Vulnerary PC29:660

ALPHA-AMINO-ADIPIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-AMYRIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Analgesic X15964027 ; Antiedemic IC43=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antiinflammatory IC71=1,000 ppm orl FT63(1):3 ; Antinociceptive; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer X14643690 ; Cytotoxic 50-400 DUKE1992B ; Gastroprotective X15368675 ; Hepatoprotective X15763370 ; Insectifuge X10701181

ALPHA-CAROTENE Seed: DUKE1992A

Anticancer JNU ; Anticancer (Liver) JNU ; Anticancer (Lung) JNU ; Anticancer (Skin) JNU ; Antiproliferant 10 x beta-carotene JNU ; Colorant JBH ; Previtamin-A DUKE1992B

ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID Fruit 130 - 1,286 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 350 - 1,656 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Antiaggregant FIH ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=42 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; Antimetastatic FIH ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive FIH ; Immunostimulant 0.12 ml/man/day FIH ; Lymphocytogenic 0.5 ug/ml FIH ; Propecic X10830511 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 39.5 g/day/hmn ARS:451 ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ALUMINUM Seed 1 - 24 ppm DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ARACHIDIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGININE Fruit 1,340 - 13,254 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 4,280 - 20,246 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ARSENIC Seed 0.01 - 0.04 ppm DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 600 - 5,935 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 44 - 1,892 ppm DUKE1992A Sprout Seedling 1,650 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Fruit 5,600 - 55,391 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 60,000 - 191,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 8,280 - 43,138 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARTIC-ACID Fruit 2,280 - 22,552 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 4,950 - 23,415 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 22 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

BETA-AMYRIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Analgesic X15964027 ; Antiedemic IC27=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antiinflammatory X8987908 ; Antinociceptive; Antiulcer X14643690 ; Gastroprotective X15368675 ; Hepatoprotective X15763370 ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 0.8 - 8.3 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 3.6 - 18.2 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-CRYPTOXANTHIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Colorant JBH ; Vitamin-A-Activity DUKE1992B

BETA-SITOSTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETAINE Root 59 ppm; DUKE1992A Shoot 94 ppm; DUKE1992A

Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antihomocystinuric; Antimyoatrophic PJB1(1) ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cardioprotective X11747976 ; Diuretic WO2 ; Emmenagogue WO2 ; Ethanolytic X11747976 ; Expectorant X15162365 ; Hepatoprotective; Lipotropic DUKE1992B ; Mucogenic X15162365 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BIOTIN Seed 82 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialopecic JLR1(2) ; Antidermatitic 3 mg/2x/day PAM ; Antineuralgic JN127:710 ; Antiseborrheic PAM

BORON Seed 2 - 23 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

BROMINE Seed 0.2 - 12 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CADAVERINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Phytohormonal JBH ; Toxic JBH

CADMIUM Seed 0.001 - 0.3 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive PAM ; Lithogenic PAM ; Nephrotoxic PAM

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CAFFEIC-ACID-4-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALCIUM Fruit 430 - 4,253 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 10,200 - 14,100 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 230 - 1,700 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CALCIUM-OXALATE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Emetic PJB1(1):169 ; Inflammatory PJB1(1):169 ; Laxative PJB1(1):169 ; Lithogenic PJB1(1):169

CAMPESTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC37=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAD

CARBOHYDRATES Fruit 75,600 - 747,774 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 296,000 - 506,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 144,600 - 684,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CELLULOSE Seed 74,000 - 96,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Hemostat M29

CEPHALIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Hemostat M11

CHLORINE Seed 200 - 590 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial M29 ; Antiherpetic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antiviral M29 ; Candidicide M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHOLESTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC43=10 uM JMF5:1

CHOLINE Fruit 2,060 ppm; DUKE1992A Root 61 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 1,970 - 2,800 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 121 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CHROMIUM Seed 0.005 - 0.17 ppm DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CIS-SINAPIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

COBALT Plant 0.15 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 0.002 - 0.24 ppm DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Seed 2 - 10 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

COUMESTROL Fruit 300 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 0.6 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antilipedemic ED50=0.4 mg/kg JSB59:155 ; Antimicrobial EEB26:65.1986 ; Antiosteoporotic 10 mg/kg JSB59:155 ; Estrogenic JBH ; Fungicide EC50=>100 JLI IC3-4=100 uM JAF38:836 ; Hypocholesterolemic ED50=0.4 mg/kg JSB59:155 ; Nematicide ED50=10-15 ug/ml NIG ; Nematistat 5-25 ug/ml NIG ; Peroxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG ; Uterotrophic ED50=0.4 mg/kg JSB59:155

CRYPTOXANTHIN Seed 0.09 - 0.9 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Vitamin-A-Activity DUKE1992B

CYANIDIN Flower: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC90=1 mM 438 ; Antioxidant 4.4 x Vit. E ID50=3.5-22 uM JAF50:166 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

CYANIDIN-3-SAMBUBIOSIDE-5-GLUCOSIDE Hull Husk: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-3-SOPHOROSIDE-5-GLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYCLOARTENOL Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial FT63(1):82 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic 2-5 mg/man DFN:160 ; Antistaphylococcic FT63(1):82 ; Hypocholesterolemic NR11:S120 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ubiquiot JBH

CYSTINE Fruit 320 - 3,165 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 320 - 1,514 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

DEHYDROASCORBIC-ACID Seed 1 - 7 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELPHINIDIN Flower: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC81=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic M&R581 ; Antioxidant ID50=0.7-2.4 uM; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; NO-Inhibitor IC78=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

DELPHINIDIN-3,5-DIGLUCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELPHINIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant JAF45:3395

DIHYDROFOLATE-SYNTHESASE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Fruit 2,000 - 19,782 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 15,000 - 54,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 3,670 - 20,481 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Fruit 25,000 - 247,280 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 168,000 - 361,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 22,100 - 104,541 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLUORINE Seed 0.1 - 1 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FOLACIN Seed 0.6 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl PAM ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man PAM ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antineuropathic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antipsychotic M29 ; AntiSpina-Bifida DAS ; Hematopoietic M11 ; Uricosuric PAM ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PAM

GABA Shoot 153 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analeptic DUKE1992B ; Anticephalagic DUKE1992B ; Anticerebrotic JBH ; Antichoreic 1-32 g/man/day M29 ; Anticonvulsant 4,120 mg/kg ipr mus BBE ; Antihypertensive 1,000-4,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiinsomniac DUKE1992B ; Antilethargic DUKE1992B ; Antistress SHT76 ; Antitinnitic DUKE1992B ; Anxiolytic SHT76 ; Cardiovascular 208 ivn dog BBE ; CNS-Inhibitor 0.1 mg/kg ivn cat BBE 100 mg/kg ivn dog BBE 2,500 mg/kg scu mus BBE ; Diuretic 1,500-4,000 mg/man/day IJO13:168 ; Hypotensive 1,000-4,000 mg/day DUKE1992B ; Neuroinhibitor OHAI13:165 ; Neurotoxic (to birds) JBH ; Neurotransmitter; Sedative HG40:12 ; Tranquilizer WER

GAMMA-HYDROXY-HOMOARGININE Sprout Seedling 100 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GENISTEIN Shoot: JLI

Abortifacient 52 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=10 uM; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=35 uM JEN147:295 ; Antiaggregant 1-10 ug/ml MED ; Antiangiogenic 150 uM; Antiatherosclerotic JMF2:163 ; Anticancer (Breast) IC50=2.6-6.7 ug/ml DAI56(4):2001 ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=?640 uM MED ; Anticlimacteric JAD ; Antiendoccytotic 100 ug/ml MED ; Antiestrogenic OI8:274 ; Antifertility DUKE1992B ; Antihemolytic JLI ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory JMF2:179 ; Antiischemic MED ; Antileukemic >50 ug/ml (185 uM) IC50=0.010 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene IC50=10-15 uM MED ; Antilymphomic JNP7:51 ; Antimelanomic MED ; Antimicrobial EEB26:65.1986 ; Antimitogenic IC50=12 uM PNA90:2693 ; Antimutagenic ID50=50-100 nM PCF:13 ; Antineuroblastomic JNP7:51 ; Antiosteoporotic OI8:274 ; Antioxidant PCF:64 ; Antiproliferative 5-45 uM PNA90:2693 ; Antiprostatadenomic 8-27 ug/ml MED ; Antiprostatitic IC50=35 uM JEN147:295 ; Antispasmodic IC50=34 uM PM58:314 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNP7:51 ; Antitumor (GI) JNP7:51 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNP7:51 ; Antitumor (Prostate) JNP7:51 ; Antitumor (Stomach) JNP7:51 ; Antiulcer? JLI ; Antiviral OI8:274 ; Apoptotic BOI ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC30=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Calcium-Antagonist 50 uM gpg K26820 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective JMF2:163 ; Catechol-O-Methyltransferase-Inhibitor JLI ; Cytotoxic >50 ug/ml (185 uM) MED IC89=10 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; DOPA-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JLI ; Estrogen-Agonist 0.1-1 uM/l JMF2:139 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l; Flatulent RWG30 ; Fungicide 2.5 mM PC38:599 ED50=50->100 JLI ; Fungistat IC34=200 uM PC29(3):802 ; Histidine-Kinase-Inhibitor IC50=110 uM MED ; Hypocholesterolemic ED50=0.5 mg/kg JSB59:155 ; Immunostimulant 2-20 mg/kg orl mus JN131:2151 ; Lipase-Inhibitor; MAO-Inhibitor IC50=60-140 uM CPB39:1238 IC50=95 FPC2:140 ; MDR-Inhibitor 200 uM BP53:89 ; NADH-Ubiquinone-Oxidoreductase-Inhibitor PNA95(7):3380 ; Natriuretic JMF3/4:257 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PNA95(7):3380 ; Peroxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG ; Pituitary-sensitizer MED ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM BOI ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer IC50=4.6 ug/ml; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor 1-10 ug/ml BBR157:183 IC50=250 ppm; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 2-7.5 ug/ml 20 uM CR49:5111 IC50=1-150 uM IC50=30 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Topoisomerase-II-Poison JMF2:167 ; Trypanosomastat MED ; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l ED50=0.5 mg/kg JSB59:155 ; VEGF-Inhibitor

GENTISIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Analgesic M11 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antifeedant DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory M11 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 ; Antirheumatic GMJ ; Antiviral JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GIBBERELLINS Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUTAMIC-ACID Fruit 4,480 - 44,313 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 7,400 - 35,005 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 70 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLYCINE Fruit 720 - 7,122 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,840 - 8,704 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

GLYCOLIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Cholesterolytic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic PED ; Hepatotonic FT5:1986 ; Irritant M11

HENTRIACONTANE Wax 500,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HISTAMINE Shoot: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R712 ; Antichilblain JBH ; AntiMeniere's MAR ; Antimigraine MAR ; Bronchoconstrictor JBH ; Bronchostimulant MAR ; Cardiovascular 0.15 mg/kg ivn rbt BBE ; Gastrostimulant MAR ; Histaminic Antidote:Adrenaline M29 ; Hypotensive MAR ; Irritant JBH ; Myostimulant M29 ; Radioprotective MAR ; Secretogogue M29 ; Spasmogenic PM56(6):688 ; Tachycardic M29 ; Ulcerogenic 100 mg/kg ipr rat JE46:167 ; Vasodilator M29

HISTIDINE Fruit 170 - 1,682 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,070 - 5,061 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

HOMOSERINE Shoot 733 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41

INDOLE-3-ACETIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic JAF42:2048 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Herbicide JAF42:2048 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic EMP6:157 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

INDOLYL-3-ACETALDEHYDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INOSITOL Seed 1,500 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialopecic DUKE1992B ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic? M29 ; Antineuropathic? 2 g/day WER ; Cholesterolytic 2,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic JBH ; Sweetener JBH ; Ubiquiot JAD

IODINE Seed 0.009 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acnegenic DAS ; Antibacterial AHP146 ; Antigoiter DAS ; Antiseptic AHP146 ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Antiviral AHP146 ; Dermatitigenic DAS ; Fungicide AHP146 ; Goitrogenic DAS ; Hyperthyroid >1 mm/day/diet AHP146 ; Protisticide AHP146 ; Thyrotropic DAS

IRON Fruit 21 - 206 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 400 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 14 - 90 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOLEUCINE Fruit 1,610 - 15,925 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,950 - 9,224 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

ISOXAZOLIN-5-ONE-2-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

JASMONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL Tissue Culture 500 ppm; DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM JBC8:211 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.73 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic RWG122 ; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat PMP23:193 ; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg DUKE1992B 200 mg/kg ipr rat DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilymphocytic JBH ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=1.2 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC50=40 uM PC27:972 ; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:774 ; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM X10673981 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic ZUL ; Choleretic LAF ; Copper-Chelator X10976523 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX:50 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic JAF50:850 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=0.56 uM X10923837 ; Fungicide 20 ug/ml FNF ; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm X11714299 IC50=5.46 uM X11714299 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml JNP54:142 ; Hypotensive FT1990:508 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic; Natriuretic BJP3:10 ; Neuroprotective X10813558 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 ; PAF-Inhibitor FT67:548 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide PR13:102 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

KAEMPFEROL-3-COUMAROYL-TRIGLUCOSIDE) Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-FERULOYL-TRIGLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-TRIGLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KILOCALORIES Fruit 420 - 4,154 /kg DUKE1992A Seed 810 - 3,832 /kg DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-(+)-2-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-(+)-ACETYLHOMOSERINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-(+)-HOMOSERINE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-(-)-HOMOSERINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-THREO-ALPHA-AMINO-BETA-CHLORO-BUTYRIC-ACID Juice: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEAD Seed 0.5 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LECITHIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 40-100 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antiataxic MAR ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidementia M29 ; Antidyskinetic 40-80 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antilithic DAS ; Antimanic PAM ; Antimorphinistic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant Synergist M29 ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antisclerodermic DUKE1992B ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antisprue DUKE1992B ; AntiTourette's 20-50 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Cholinergic MAR ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 20-30 g/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic M11

LEGUMIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEGUMINELIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Fruit 2,280 - 22,552 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 3,230 - 15,279 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 35 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LINOLEIC-ACID Fruit 1,750 - 7,418 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,520 - 7,190 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LUPEOL Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

Antiangiogenic 30-50 ug/ml PR4:341 ; AntiEBV JNP65:645 ; Antiedemic PM60:516 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; Antihyperglycemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 Indomethacin PM60:516 ; Antilithic 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antimalarial IC50=46.8 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antioxalate 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antioxidant FT67:121 ; Antiperoxidant FT67:121 ; Antiprostaglandin X11732756 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiurethrotic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JNP67:344 ; Cytotoxic 50-500 ppm DUKE1992B ; FPTase-Inhibitor IC50=65 ug/ml JNP59:658 ; Hypotensive JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor IC50=10.4 uM JNP64:1545

LUTEIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic SN159:391 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antimaculitic JNU ; Antinyctalopic JNU ; Antioxidant JN126:2098 ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antiradicular JN126:2098 ; Antiretinitic Optometry 71(3):147 ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACN71:575 ; Colorant JBH ; Prooxidant 5-40 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 2.5 ug PS131:95 ; Retinoprotectant Optometry 71(3):147 ; Ubiquiot JBH

LUTEIN-EPOXIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LYSINE Fruit 2,020 - 19,980 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 3,170 - 14,995 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

M-XYLOHYDROQUINONE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MAGNESIUM Fruit 218 - 2,591 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 2,200 - 3,700 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 319 - 1,700 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MALVIDIN-3-RHAMNOSIDE-5-GLUCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MANGANESE Plant 85 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 3 - 21 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MERCURY Seed 0.001 - 0.024 ppm DUKE1992A

Nephrotoxic PAM

MESOXALIC-ACID Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHIONINE Fruit 110 - 1,088 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 820 - 3,879 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHYL-4-CHLORO-INDOYL-3-ACETATE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MEVALONIC-ACID Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

MOLYBDENUM Seed 0.1 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Esophagus)? DAS ; Antitumor (Esophagus)? DAS

MUFA Fruit 210 - 2,077 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 350 - 1,656 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

MYO-INOSITOL Root 100 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 1,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRISTIC-ACID Fruit 20 - 198 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

NEO-BETA-CAROTENE-B Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEO-BETA-CAROTENE-U Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NIACIN Fruit 6 - 59 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 20 - 105 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICKEL Seed 0.2 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

NICOTINAMIDE Sprout Seedling 0.7 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Depressant DAS

NICOTINIC-ACID Seed 18 ppm; DUKE1992A Sprout Seedling 18 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antichilblain 50 mg/3x/day DAS ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidote (pesticides) DAS ; Antischizophrenic DAS ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 1-6 g/man/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic EMP6:157 ; Lipolytic DAS

NITROGEN Seed 11,000 - 50,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

O-ACETYL-HOMOSERINE Shoot 433 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

O-COUMARIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Fungicide PHZ46:156 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

OBTUSTYRENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OLEIC-ACID Fruit 210 - 2,077 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 350 - 1,656 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

ONONITOL Root 3.23 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OXALIC-ACID Fruit 60 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-COUMARIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A Seed: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial POP:58 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PCF:65 ; Antiradicular PMID10616967 ; Antisickling 10.5 ug/ml; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungistat EC50=607 ug/ml NIG ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG ; Prostaglandigenic JBH ; Secretogogue CAN ; Ubiquiot JBH

PAEONIDIN Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Fruit 330 - 3,264 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 640 - 3,027 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Fruit 7.5 - 74 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1 - 5 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PARAGALACTAN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PECTIN Seed 25,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PELARGONIDIN Flower: DUKE1992A

Antiherpetic EMP5:197 ; Antioxidant ID50=85-456 uM JAF50:166 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

PETUNIDIN Flower: DUKE1992A

Larvistat JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH

PHENYLALANINE Fruit 900 - 8,902 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,000 - 9,460 ppm DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 530 - 5,240 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 1,800 - 6,400 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,038 - 6,250 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PHYTIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant LAF ; Anticancer JAF44:2663 ; Antioxidant JAF44:2663 ; Antitumor JAF44:2663 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungicide JAF44:2663 ; Hypocalcemic Sodium phytate M11 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAF44:2663 ; Hypolipidemic JAF44:2663

PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININ Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHYTOPRECIPITIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PINITOL Seed 500 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic PMP23:59 ; Antifeedant DUKE1992B ; Expectorant FEA DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PIPECOLINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PISATIN Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial 50 ug/ml 438 ; Fungicide ED50=100 ug/ml JLI IC20-50=100 uM JAF38:836 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG

POTASSIUM Fruit 1,701 - 22,737 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 12,800 - 25,200 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,273 - 15,830 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROLINE Fruit 630 - 6,231 ppm DUKE1992A Root 575 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 1,730 - 8,183 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 23 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Fruit 28,000 - 276,954 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 107,000 - 284,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 52,800 - 262,042 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PUFA Fruit 890 - 8,803 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,870 - 8,846 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacne MAR ; Antieczemic MAR ; AntiMS MAR ; Antipolyneuritic MAR

PUTRESCINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PYRIDOXINE Seed 1.4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 50 mg day WER ; Antiacne 50 mg/day; Antiaggregant 40 mg/day; Antianemic 50-400 mg/man/day; Antiasthmatic 100-200 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic 40 mg/day WER ; Antiautistic DAS ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 100-150 mg/day/12 wks/orl/man M29 ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant 40-50 mg day; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DAS ; Antidote (Hydrazine) 10 g ivn M29 ; Antidyskinetic 250-300 mg/man/4x/day MAR ; Antiemetic 20-200 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiepileptic 40 mg/day; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antihomocystinuric; Antihyperkinetic 1.5-2 g/day WER ; Antihyperventilation 40 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility WER ; Antilithic WER ; AntiMorning-Sickness PAM ; AntiMSG-Sensitivity 50 mg/day WER ; Antinephritic DAS ; Antineuritic 150 mg/man/day MAR ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antioxaluric PAM ; Antiparkinsonian 50 mg day; AntiPMS 100 mg/day/orl/wmn M29 50 mg/day PAM ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiradiation DAS ; Antischizophrenic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antiseborrheic DAS ; Antisickling DAS ; Antispasmodic 100 mg/day WER ; AntiTMJ 50 mg/day WER ; Antiulcer DAS ; Antivertigo DAS ; Dopaminergic PAM ; Neurotoxic 2-6 g/day for 2-24 mos M29 ; Progesteronigenic 40 mg/day WER

PYRROLINE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-COUMAROYL-TRIGLUCOSIDE) Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-FERULOYL-TRIGLUCOSIDE) Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-TRIGLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCITRIN Seed: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=0.67 mM/ K25469 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 0.1-100 uM 0.5-4 ug/ml IC50=2 uM CPB38:2733 IC50=64 uM rat SPJ4:45 IC55=0.1 uM PM56(3):257 IC55=0.15 uM; Antiarrhythmic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticataract PM239:1986 ; Antiedemic KCH ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiflu AYL ; Antihemorrhagic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antiinflammatory KCH ; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antioxidant IC50=120 uM PC27:972 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:76 ; Antistaphylococcic 0.412% HG40:24 ; Antithrombogenic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer JBH ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic LAF ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 200 uM HH2 ; Detoxicant LAF ; Diuretic KCH ; Dye M11 ; Hemostat JBH ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:189 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Insectiphile JBH ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; MAO-Inhibitor HG40:12 ; Paralytic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasopressor JE26:76

QUINIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

RAFFINOSE Seed 6,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Flatugenic PFH46:77

RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 0.8 - 8 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1.2 - 6.7 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RUBIDIUM Seed 0.77 - 10 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

S-4-CHLORO-TRYPTOPHAN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SALICYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 724.6 uM PR7:252 ; Analgesic; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antidermatotic DUKE1992B ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antiichthyosic M29 ; Antiinflammatory PHZ46:156 ; Antineuralgic MAD ; Antioncychomycotic M29 ; Antioxidant KCH ; Antiperiodic DUKE1992B ; Antipodagric DUKE1992B ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic PJB1(2):285 ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic ALH ; Antitumor PCF:49 ; Antitympanitic M11 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Comedolytic M29 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX2000 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Fungicide MIC 1,000 ug/ml FFJ11:257 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:158 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Keratolytic JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Thermogenic 130 ppm SCI237:1601 ; Tineacide M29 ; Ulcerogenic DUKE1992B

SELENIUM Seed 0.001 - 0.002 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

SERINE Fruit 1,250 - 12,364 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,810 - 8,562 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525

SFA Fruit 390 - 3,857 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 710 - 3,350 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SILICON Seed 2 - 59 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic DAS ; Antionychyotic PIL ; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective PIL

SODIUM Fruit 22 - 578 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 37 - 297 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

SOYASAPONIN-I Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SPERMIDINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant X12031538

SPERMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant X12031538

SQUALENE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial JBH ; Antioxidant JAF47(10):4025 ; Antitumor JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive JAF47(10):4025 ; Immunostimulant JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor CE7:297 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen JAF47(10):4025

STACHYOSE Seed 20,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Flatugenic PFH46:77

STARCH Seed 329,000 - 434,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Absorbent M29 ; Antidote (Iodine) JBH ; Antinesidioblastosic M29 ; Emollient M29 ; Poultice M29

STEARIC-ACID Fruit 30 - 297 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 70 - 331 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

STIGMASTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

SUCCINIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Additive FEMA 200-2,000 ARC ; Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Dye M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SUCROSE Seed 22,500 - 280,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Aggregant PAM ; Antihiccup 1 tsp M29 ; Antiophthalmic M29 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Atherogenic PAM ; Collyrium JBH ; Demulcent JBH ; Flatugenic PFH46:77 ; Hypercholesterolemic PAM ; Preservative M11 ; Sweetener 1 x sucrose M11 ; Triglycerigenic PAM ; Uricogenic PAM ; Vulnerary M29

SUGAR Seed 41,000 - 59,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SULFUR Plant 2,300 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 410 - 2,290 ppm DUKE1992A

Acarifuge DUKE1992B ; Antiacne M29 ; Antiarthritic WER ; Antidandruff M29 ; Antigrey M29 ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiseborrheic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Comedogenic M29 ; Keratolytic M29 ; Laxative M29 ; Parasiticide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Scabicide M29

SYRINGIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A Seed: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC39=30 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperoxidant IC10-70=100-200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular EC50=5.5-8 ug/ml JAF50:5850 ; Ubiquiot JBH

THIAMIN Fruit 1.5 - 15 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2.4 - 13.9 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THREONINE Fruit 990 - 9,792 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,030 - 9,603 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

TOCOPHEROL Seed 0.3 - 22 ppm DUKE1992A

5-HETE-Inhibitor BO2 ; Allergenic NAH19(9):4 ; Analgesic 100 IU 3 x day WER ; Antiaggregant MAR ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antialzheimeran 2,000 IU SYN-X ; Antianginal 1,067 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiarteriosclerotic DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic PAM ; Antibronchitic DUKE1992B ; Anticancer (Breast) IC50=125 ug/ml JN:1997 ; Anticariogenic JD23:101 ; Anticataract PIL ; Antichorea DUKE1992B ; Antichoreic DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Anticoronary 100-200 IU/day; Antidecubitic DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic PJB1(3):250 ; Antidiabetic 600-1,200 mg/day EMP6:164 ; Antidysmenorrheic DAS ; Antiepitheleomic PCF:20 ; Antifibrositic MAR ; Antiglycosation SYN-X ; Antiherpetic MAR ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiinflammatory SYN- ; Antiischemic JE29:31 ; Antileukemic 100-250 uM BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilithic 600 mg/day WER ; Antilupus DUKE1992B ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimastalgic DAS ; AntiMD DUKE1992B ; Antimelanomic DUKE1992B ; AntiMS DUKE1992B ; Antimyoclonic PAM ; Antineuritic M29 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:20 ; Antiophthalmic DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic DAS ; Antioxidant IC36=10 uM JMF5:1 IC50=30 ug/ml CPB38:1051 IC95=650 uM PM56(6):678 ; Antiparkinsonian ARN45:1350 ; AntiPMS 300 IU 2 x day; Antiproliferant IC50=150 ug/ml JN:1997 ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antiretinopathic? M29 ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antisenility PJB1(3):250 ; Antisickling MAR ; Antispasmodic 300 mg/man/day MAR ; Antisterility PJB1(3):250 ; Antistroke DAS ; Antisunburn NAH18(9):4 ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antithalassemic DAS ; Antithrombotic 600 IU/day WER ; Antithromboxane-B2 SYN-X ; Antitoxemic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor 7 uM ckn PCF:19 ; Antitumor (Breast) 100-250 uM BO2 IC50=125 ug/ml SYN-X ; Antitumor (Colorectal) 500-10,000 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) 100-250 uM; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic 67 mg/man/3 x/day/orl; Apoptotic 100-250 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cerebroprotective KCH ; Circulatory-Stimulant DAS ; Circulotonic; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 100-450 IU/man/day; Hypoglycemic 600 IU/man/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 60-800 IU; Insulin-Sparing 1,000 IU WER ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor PAM ; NO-Inhibitor PIL ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor 400 mg/kg BO2 ; P21-Inducer 500-10,000 uM BO2 ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor BO2 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor 10-50 uM BO2 IC50=450 uM BO2 ; Vasodilator SYN-X

TRANS-SINAPIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRIGONELLINE Fruit 6 - 203 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 9 - 88 ppm DUKE1992A Root 1 - 75 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 128 - 227 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 55 ppm; DUKE1992A Sprout Seedling 91 ppm; DUKE1992A Stem 1 - 24 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) 411 ; Anticancer (Liver) 411 ; Antihyperglycemic IWU ; Antimigraine PMP25:56 ; Antiseptic IWU ; Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Liver); Epidermal-Stimulant HG50:31 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic 50 mg/kg orl rat CAN 500-3,000 mg/man/day MAR ; Mutagenic MED97 ; Osmoregulator PC44:1037 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic HG50:31

TRYPTOPHAN Fruit 270 - 2,671 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 370 - 1,750 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

TYRAMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Adrenergic M11 ; Antiaggregant DUKE1992B ; Cardiovascular 0.8 ivn cat BBE 30 mg/kg scu mus BBE ; Hypertensive NIG ; Insectifuge 356 ; Neurotoxic 1 mg/kg ivn dog BBE ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sympathomimetic; Vasoconstrictor PH2 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

TYROSINE Fruit 990 - 9,792 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,130 - 5,345 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

VALINE Fruit 2,730 - 27,003 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,350 - 11,116 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 33 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

VANILLIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A Seed: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM/l PHM1:145 ; Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antibacterial 1.5-15 mg/ml 452 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC21=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC15-65=100-200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Ant

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Peas

Commonsteps

References

25th: 25 Dispensatory

356: Grainge, M. and Ahmed, S., Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1988, 470. Note: Author list various compounds as active principle, thus leading me to enter all the aconitine alkaloids, e.g, as insecticidal, though authors do not specifically say that all are insecticidal.

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

71(3):147: Jim Duke's personal files

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACN71:575: Jim Duke's personal files

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:180: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP146: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARN45:1350: Jim Duke's personal files

ARS:451: Ferretti, A., Flanagan, V. P. 1996. Antithromboxane Activity of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid: A Pilot Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 54(6): 451-455. ARS, USDA.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

AllHerb1998: AllHerb1998

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BBR157:183: Okura, A., Arakawa, H., Oka, H., Yoshinari, T., Monden, Y. 1988. Effect of Genistein on Topoisomerase Activity and on the Growth of [VAL 12]HA-RAS-Transformed NIH 3T3 Cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 157: 183-189.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BP53:89: Castro, A. F., Altenberg, G. A. 1997. Inhibition of Drug Transport by Genistein in Multidrug-Resistant Cell Expressing P-Glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol, 53(1): 89-93.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CE7:297: Chemical Express, 7: 297, 1992.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

COX2000: Newmark, T. M. and Schulick, P. 2000. Herbal Cox-2 Inhibition - Nature's Challenge to Arthritis, Cancer & Alzheimer's Disease. Hohm Press, Prescott AZ.

COX:50: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2733: Terashima, S., Shimizu, M., Nakayama, H., Ishikura, M., et al. 1990. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plant of "Sinfito," Potentilla candicans, and Further Synthesis of Their Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull 38(10):2733-2736, 1990

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB38:774: Yasukawa, K., Takido, M., Takeuchi, M., Sato, Y., Nitta, K., and Nakagawa, S. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Flavonol Glycosides on 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-Induced Tumor Promotion. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(3): 774-776, 1990.

CPB39:1238: Jim Duke's personal files

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CR49:5111: Markovits, J., et al. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Genistein on Mammalian DNA Topoisomerase II. Cancer Research, 49: 5111-5117.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAI56(4):2001: Jim Duke's personal files

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:159: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EEB26:65.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:158: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 158.

EMP6:164: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FFJ11:257: Jim Duke's personal files

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIH: Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FPC2:140: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:508: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):82: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:121: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:548: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:24: Jim Duke's personal files

HG50:31: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO13:168: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAC45:3362: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:836: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF42:2048: Korhammer, S.A. and Haslinger, E. 1994. Isolation of a Biologically Active Substance from Rhizomes of Quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould]. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 2048-2050.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2663: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3395: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47(10):4025: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:166: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4567: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JD23:101: Jim Duke's personal files

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:82: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE29:31: Jim Duke's personal files

JE32:175: Jim Duke's personal files

JE46:167: Jim Duke's personal files

JEN147:295: Jim Duke's personal files

JLI: Jim Duke's personal files

JLR1(2): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:139: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 139.1999.

JMF2:163: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 163.1999.

JMF2:167: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 167.1999.

JMF2:179: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 179.1999.

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF3/4:257: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN126:2098: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:710: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN131:2151: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JN:1997: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP54:142: Garcia, J., Morin,* C., Nyasse, B., Sondengam, B-L., Tchouankeu, J-C., and Tsamo, E. Complete Structural Assignments Of An Ergosterol Derivative From Entandrophragma utile. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 136-142, 1991.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP58:217: Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.

JNP59:658: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:645: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:344: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:125: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:35: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JSB59:155: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K25469: Jim Duke's personal files

K26820: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R: Mitchell, J. and Rook, A.J. 1923. Botanical Dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver: Greengrass, 1979. xiii, 787 p.: ill.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R581: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R712: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED97: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPI: =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp Note: (2 vols so far).

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NAH18(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files

NAH19(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

OHAI13:165: Jim Duke's personal files

OI8:274: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(3):802: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29:660: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PC38:599: Geibel, M. 1994. Sensitivity of the Fungus Cytospora persoonii to the Flavonoids of Prunus cerasus. Phytochemistry. 38(3): 599-601. 1995.

PC44:1037: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:13: Maga, J.A. Contribution of Phenolic Compounds to Smoke Flavor. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.13.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:20: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:64: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 64.

PCF:65: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 65.

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM1:145: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):285: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):250: Jim Duke's personal files

PM239:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(3):257: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):678: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):681: Planta Medica, 56(6): 681, 1990.

PM56(6):688: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM58:314: Jim Duke's personal files

PM60:516: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID10616967: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:193: Kumar, P., Dixit*, V.P., and Khanna, P. Antifertility Studies of Kaempferol: Isolation and Identification from Tissue Culture of some Medicinally Important Plant Species. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 23: 193-201, 1989.

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:59: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:56: Jim Duke's personal files

PNA90:2693: Jim Duke's personal files

PNA95(7):3380: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:58: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:102: Meckes, M., Calzada, F., Tapia-Contreras, A., Cedillo-Rivera, R. 1999. Antiprotozoal Properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13(2): 102-105.

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:341: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PR7:252: Toyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG122: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG30: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SCI237:1601: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT76: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN159:391: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SPJ4:45: Al-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.

SYN-: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO2: Wealth of India.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZUL: Hutchings, A, Scott, AH, Lewis, G, and Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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