Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Pinus walliciana A.B. JACKSON (Pinaceae) -- Bhutan Pine



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Pinus walliciana A.B. JACKSON (Pinaceae) -- Bhutan Pine



No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340


Antiallergic IWU ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory PEP ; Antipyretic HG20:40 ; Antiseptic 6-500 VAL ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antiulcer ED50=150 (orl) DUKE1992B ; Hepatoregenerative CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241


(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

CYMEME Resin, Exudate, Sap: WOI

No activity reported.


Allergenic M&R618 ; Antibacterial LAF ; Antiviral LAF ; Expectorant JBH ; Irritant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JBH

EO Leaf 5,000 ppm; WOI

No activity reported.

FAT Seed 202,000 ppm; WOI

No activity reported.

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 105,250 ppm; WOI

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LINOLENIC-ACID Seed 41,000 ppm; WOI

No activity reported.

OLEIC-ACID Seed 26,850 ppm; WOI

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

P-CYMENE Resin, Exudate, Sap: WOI

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-XYLENE Resin, Exudate, Sap: WOI

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Seed 15,350 ppm; WOI

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH


Hyperthermic HG22:45 ; Irritant RIN ; Spasmogenic FT59:465 ; Tumor-Promoter AEHD1:131

PINENE Resin, Exudate, Sap 200,000 - 242,000 ppm WOI

Allergenic LRN-APR93 ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic FT59:465 ; Convulsant RJH ; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JE26:72 ; Fungicide JAF40:2329 ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

PROPIONIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: WOI

FLavor FEMA 1-36,000 ARC ; Fungicide 2,500-36,000; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient ZEB

STEARIC-ACID Seed 13,130 ppm; WOI

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

TERPINEOL Resin, Exudate, Sap: WOI

Analgesic 10-100 ug/ml PM67:564 ; Anesthetic PM67:564 ; Antiallergenic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticancer JNU ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antiseptic M11 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Cholagogue DUKE1992B ; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; Expectorant DUKE1992B ; Insecticide X11997977 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Larvicide X11997977 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TOLUENE Resin, Exudate, Sap: WOI

Encephalopathic M29

TURPENTINE Resin, Exudate, Sap 228,000 - 275,000 ppm WOI

No activity reported.

UNDECANE Resin, Exudate, Sap: WOI

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Pine nuts



382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AEHD1:131: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

HG20:40: HerbalGram No. 20, page 40.

HG22:45: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 45.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-APR93: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PM67:564: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

X10408241: Jim Duke's personal files

X10826719: Jim Duke's personal files

X10830511: Jim Duke's personal files

X11559128: Jim Duke's personal files

X11997977: Jim Duke's personal files

X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X16248573: Jim Duke's personal files

X2364470: Jim Duke's personal files

X7199340: Jim Duke's personal files

X9242356: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million