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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Pinus pinea L. (Pinaceae) -- Italian Stone Pine, Pignolia

Identifier

019039

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Pinus pinea L. (Pinaceae) -- Italian Stone Pine, Pignolia


Chemicals

ALANINE Seed 12,540 - 15,000 ppm JEL USA

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ARGININE Seed 46,680 - 71,600 ppm JEL USA

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ASH Seed 43,000 - 47,155 ppm CRC USA

No activity reported.

ASPARTIC-ACID Seed 21,870 - 26,000 ppm JEL USA

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

CALCIUM Seed 260 - 280 ppm USA

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CARBOHYDRATES Seed 116,000 - 152,415 ppm CRC USA

No activity reported.

COPPER Seed 10 - 11 ppm USA

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CYSTINE Seed 4,350 - 4,660 ppm USA

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

FAT Seed 474,000 - 560,500 ppm CRC USA

No activity reported.

FIBER Seed 8,000 - 10,000 ppm CRC USA

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

GADOLEIC-ACID Seed 9,680 - 10,375 ppm USA

No activity reported.

GLUTAMIC-ACID Seed 40,840 - 59,800 ppm JEL USA

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLYCINE Seed 12,230 - 15,000 ppm JEL USA

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

HISTIDINE Seed 5,750 - 7,475 ppm JEL USA

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

IRON Seed 92 - 100 ppm USA

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOLEUCINE Seed 9,330 - 10,700 ppm JEL USA

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

KILOCALORIES Seed 5,150 - 5,850 /kg CRC USA

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Seed 17,300 - 20,600 ppm JEL USA

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 206,890 - 221,725 ppm USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LINOLENIC-ACID Seed 6,540 - 7,010 ppm USA

No activity reported.

LYSINE Seed 9,010 - 9,655 ppm USA

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

METHIONINE Seed 4,300 - 6,050 ppm JEL USA

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

MUFA Seed 190,760 - 204,435 ppm USA

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

NIACIN Seed 35 - 38 ppm USA

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

OLEIC-ACID Seed 179,000 - 191,835 ppm USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

PALMITIC-ACID Seed 36,720 - 39,350 ppm USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Seed 2,080 - 2,230 ppm USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PHENYLALANINE Seed 9,190 - 12,800 ppm JEL USA

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHOSPHORUS Seed 5,080 - 5,445 ppm USA

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PHYTOSTEROLS Seed 1,410 - 1,510 ppm USA

Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic MPP

POTASSIUM Seed 5,990 - 6,420 ppm USA

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROLINE Seed 12,900 - 13,900 ppm JEL USA

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Seed 240,000 - 356,000 ppm CRC JEL USA

No activity reported.

PUFA Seed 213,430 - 228,730 ppm USA

Antiacne MAR ; Antieczemic MAR ; AntiMS MAR ; Antipolyneuritic MAR

RIBOFLAVIN Seed 2 - 3 ppm USA

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SALICYLATES Seed 5 - 6 ppm JAD85:950

Antiaggregant CAN ; Antiinflammatory CAN ; Antipyretic CAN ; Antiuricosuric CAN ; Hyperglycemic CAN ; Hypoglycemic CAN ; Uricosuric CAN

SERINE Seed 10,190 - 15,300 ppm JEL USA

Cancer-Preventive 525

SFA Seed 77,970 - 83,560 ppm USA

No activity reported.

SODIUM Seed 40 - 43 ppm USA

Hypertensive DAS

STEARIC-ACID Seed 16,720 - 17,920 ppm USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

THIAMIN Seed 6 - 9 ppm CRC USA

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THREONINE Seed 7,610 - 8,190 ppm JEL USA

Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

TRYPTOPHAN Seed 3,030 - 3,250 ppm USA

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

TYROSINE Seed 8,780 - 11,400 ppm JEL USA

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

VALINE Seed 12,410 - 15,300 ppm JEL USA

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

WATER Seed 56,000 - 69,750 ppm CRC USA

No activity reported.

ZINC Seed 42 - 46 ppm USA

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Pine nuts
Pines

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAD85:950: J. Amer. Diet. Ass. 85{8}:950. Note: Leaves, fruits, and other normally wet items back-calculated to fresh weight by dividing by 10.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JEL: J. Ethnobiology.

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

USA: USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10830511: Jim Duke's personal files

X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X12120812: Jim Duke's personal files

X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

X1637346: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace