Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

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This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha x rotundifolia (L.) HUDSON (Lamiaceae) -- Applemint



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha x rotundifolia (L.) HUDSON (Lamiaceae) -- Applemint


(+)-PIPERITENONE-OXIDE Leaf 8 - 8,510 ppm

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=64 ug/ml

(+)-PULEGONE Leaf 170 ppm;

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM IC50=136 ug/ml; Irritant ZEB; Perfumery


No activity reported.

1,2-EPOXY-NEOMENTHOL-ACETATE Leaf 6 - 7,390 ppm

No activity reported.

ALLO-CYMENE Shoot 6 - 100 ppm

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity); Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Leaf 16 - 280 ppm

Antibacterial; Antistaphylococcic; Dermal; Emetic; FLavor FEMA 10-130; Fungicide; Insectiphile; Irritant; Laxative; Perfumery; Pesticide

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 4 - 430 ppm

Allelochemic; Allergenic; Antiacne; Antibacterial; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Coleoptophile; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-150; Herbicide IC50=30 uM; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile; Irritant; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer; Transdermal


11B-HSD-Inhibitor; AntiADD; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.57 ppm IC50=9.52 uM; Antiaggregant; Antiaging; Antiallergic; Antiangiogenic 4 uM; Antiarrhythmic; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Lung); Anticomplementary; Antidermatitic; Antiestrogenic; Antiherpetic 20-54 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=10-35 uM; AntiHIV IC50=143 ug/ml IC72=200 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory = indomethacin IC~65=1,000 uM; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antimelanomic 1-50 uM; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=0.55 ug/ml ID50=10-40 nM; Antioxidant 1.5 x Vit. E IC28.5=62.5 ug/ml; Antiperistaltic; Antiproliferant 1-50 uM IC50=155 uM; Antispasmodic EC50=1-5 uM; Antistress 10 mg/kg; Antithyroid; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Skin); Antiviral 20-54 ug/ml; Anxiolytic 10 mg/kg; Apoptotic 12-60 uM; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC65=1 uM/l; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM; Calcium-Antagonist?; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic; CNS-Depressant; COX-1-Inhibitor IC65=1,000 uM; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM IC50=<15 uM IC>65=1,000 uM; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM IC50=9.5 uM IC88=10 ug/ml; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Differentiator IC40=40 uM MIC=30 uM; Diuretic; DNA-Protective; Estrogenic 16% genistein EC50=0.1-25 uM/l EC50=1 uM; HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=50-250 uM; Hypotensive; ICAM-1-Inhibitor; IKK-Inhibitor; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=<15 uM; Inotropic; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor; MAO-Inhibitor; MAPK-Inhibitor; Musculotropic; Mutagenic; Myorelaxant; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Nodulation-Signal; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; P21-Inducer 10-70 uM; Pesticide; PKC-Inhibitor IC50=10 uM; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor; Progestational; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=10-40 uM; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 20 uM; Radioprotective; Sedative 30-100 mg/kg; Sunscreen; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.27 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 50 ug/ml IC28=18 uM IC45=180 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 0.36 uM

BETA-PINENE Leaf 9 - 330 ppm

Allergenic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 15-600; Herbicide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide; Spasmogenic; Transdermal

BORNEOL-ACETATE Leaf 25 - 420 ppm

No activity reported.


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity); Allergenic; Analgesic; Antiadenoviral; Antiaggregant; Antiaging; Antiatherogenic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticarcinogenic; Antidepressant; Antiedemic; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) IC50=93 um/l; Antiescherichic; Antiflu; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic 25 uM; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml; Antihistaminic; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella; Antileukemic; Antileukotriene; Antimelanogenic; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosaminic; Antiophidic; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E 1/2 BHA 1/3 quercetin 30 mM 50 uM IC57=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml IC50=44 uM IC85=100 ug/ml; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin 10 uM 30 mM IC50=32-35 uM; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM; Antistaphylococcic; Antistomatitic; Antisunburn; Antithiamin; Antithyroid; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive; Cholagogue; Choleretic; Clastogenic; CNS-Active; Co-carcinogenic; Collagen-Sparing; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM; Cytoprotective; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml; Diuretic; DNA-Active; DNA-Protective; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol); Hepatoprotective; Hepatotropic; Histamine-Inhibitor; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge; Leukotriene-Inhibitor; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM IC50=62-148 uM; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM; Metal-Chelator; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Prooxidant; Prostaglandigenic; Sedative 500 mg; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l IC91=5 mg/l IC98=25 mg/l; Tumorigenic; Vulnerary; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM

CALCIUM Leaf 16,300 ppm;

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day; Antidepressant; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Lead); Antihyperkinetic; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day; Antitic; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day; Hypotensive 1 g/day; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day; Vasodilator

CAMPHENE Leaf 20 ppm;

Allelopathic; Antilithic?; Antioxidant; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-175; Hypocholesterolemic?; Insectifuge; Pesticide; Spasmogenic

CARVONE Leaf 240 - 5,000 ppm

Allergenic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4-1.8 mM; Antiproliferative; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol; Cancer-Preventive; Candidistat; Carminative; CNS-Stimulant; FLavor FEMA 80-3,000; Fungistat; Insecticide; Insectifuge; Motor-Depressant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml; Vermicide

CINEOLE Leaf 4 - 120 ppm

No activity reported.

CITRAL Shoot 9 - 150 ppm

Allergenic; Antiallergenic; Antiallergic; Antianaphylactic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Antihelicobacter; Antiherpetic; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory; Antileishmanic; Antioxidant; Antiseptic 5.2 x phenol; Antishock; Antispasmodic; Antitumor; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Liver); Antitumor (Skin); Antiulcer; Antiviral; Apoptotic; Barbituate-Synergist; Bronchorelaxant; Calcium-Antagonist; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Caspase-3-Inducer; Chemopreventive; Cytotoxic; Estrogenic; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 4-170; Fungicide MIC 625 ug/ml; Glaucomagenic; Glutathionigenic; Herbicide IC50=115 uM; Myorelaxant 200 mg/kg; Nematicide IC52=100 ug/ml MLC=100-260 ug/ml; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.19 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide; Prostatitigenic 185 mg/kg/day/3 ms; Sedative 1 mg/kg ED 1-32 mg/kg; Teratogenic; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml; Trypanocide; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=1,500 uM ID50=1.5 mM


Allelochemic IC90=1 mM; Antioxidant 4.4 x Vit. E ID50=3.5-22 uM; Metal-Chelator (Copper); Pesticide; Pigment; Prooxidant


Allelochemic IC81=1 mM; Allergenic; Antioxidant ID50=0.7-2.4 uM; Cancer-Preventive; Metal-Chelator (Copper); NO-Inhibitor IC78=250 uM; Pesticide; Pigment; Prooxidant


No activity reported.


Antibacterial; Antiseptic; Diuretic; Peticide


No activity reported.

EO Leaf 600 - 10,000 ppm

No activity reported.

FAT Seed 282,000 ppm;

No activity reported.


Allelopathic; Analgesic; Antiaggregant; Antiallergic; Antiarrhythmic; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach); Anticancer (Liver); Anticancer (Skin); Anticarcinogenic; Antidysmenorrheic; Antiestrogenic; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml; Antimitotic; Antimutagenic; Antineoplastic (Stomach); Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA 1/3 quercetin 3,000 uM EC50=9-15 ug/ml IC51=200 ppm; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml IC50=116-124 uM; Antiserotonin; Antispasmodic; Antithrombic; Antitumor; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach); Antitumor (Liver); Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM; Antiviral; Arteriodilator; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Cardiac; Cholagogue; Choleretic; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective; Hepatotropic; Herbicide; Hydrocholerectic; Hypolipidemic; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge; Metal-Chelator; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Preservative; Prostaglandigenic; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM; Sunscreen; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat

ISONEOPULEGOL Leaf 1 - 5,200 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

ISOPIPERITENONE Leaf 80 - 1,340 ppm

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Leaf: 14 - 500 ppm

Acaricide LC100=8 uM; AChE-Inhibitor; Allelochemic; Allergenic 1/20th carene; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM; Antiadenomic; Antialzheimeran?; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Antiesophagitic; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory; Antilithic; Antilymphomic; Antimetastatic (Stomach); Antimutagenic; Antiobesity; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antitumor (Prostate); Antitumor (Stomach); Antiviral; Apoptotic; Bronchoprotectant; Cancer-Preventive; Candidistat; Chemopreventive; Cholesterolytic; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant; Expectorant; FLavor; Fungiphilic; Fungistat; GST-Inducer; Herbicide IC50=45 uM; Histaminic; Immunomodulator; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor; Irritant; Lipolytic; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml; NO-Genic; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet); Ozone-Scavenger; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic; Pesticide; Photosensitizer; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg; Transdermal


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml; Anticarcinogenic; Anticarcinomic; Anticataract EC=3 ppm; Anticomplementary; Antidermatic; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic; Antimelanomic; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio; Antiproliferant; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Kidney); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM; Antitumor (Stomach); Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM; Antitussive; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge; Apoptotic 12-50 uM; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive; Choleretic; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM; Diuretic; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM; Hypocholesterolemic; ICAM-1-Inhibitor; IKK-Inhibitor; iNOS-Inhibitor; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; MAPK-Inhibitor; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM; Myorelaxant; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Proliferant; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml



MASLINIC-ACID Tissue Culture:

Antiedemic; Antihistaminic; AntiHIV IC100=18 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory; Antiviral; Protease-Inhibitor


Calcium-Antagonist IC50=441 uM gpg (weak activity); Hepatotoxic; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide; Pulmonotoxic

MENTHOL Leaf 80 ppm;

Allergenic; Analgesic; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM; Antiaggregant IC50=750; Antiallergic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic; Antidandruff; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antihalitosic; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic; Antipruritic; Antipyretic; Antirheumatic; Antisalmonella; Antiseptic 4 x phenol; Antisinusitic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Antitartar; Antivaginitic; Antivulvitic; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman; Bronchomucolytic; Bronchomucotropic; Bronchorrheic; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Carminative; Choleretic; Ciliotoxic; CNS-Depressant; CNS-Stimulant; Congestant; Convulsant; Counterirritant; Decongestant? 11 mg/man; Dermatitigenic; Diaphoretic; Enterorelaxant; Expectorant; Gastrosedative; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Neurodepressant; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat; Nociceptive; Perfumery; Pesticide; Refrigerant; Rubefacient; Termiticide; Transdermal; Vibriocide


Acaricide; Allelopathic; Analgesic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4 mM; Antiaggregant IC50=750; Antiallergic; Antibacillary MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-5 mg/ml; Antiescherichic MIC=5 mg/ml; Antihistaminic; Antilisteria MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antisalmonella MIC=5 mg/ml; Antiseptic 2.25 x phenol; Antispasmodic ED50=0.044 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625-2.5 mg/ml; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide MIC=2.5 mg/ml; Cerebrotoxic orl man; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l; FLavor FEMA 5-50; Fungicide; Insecticide LC50=156-194 mg/l; Larvicide; Mutagenic; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Psychoactive; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=600 ug/ml

NEO-ISOPULEGOL Leaf 314 - 5,230 ppm

No activity reported.

OCTAN-3-OL Leaf 5 - 822 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

OLEANOLIC-ACID Tissue Culture:

Abortifacient; Antiallergic; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Anticarcinomic; Anticariogenic; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat; Antifertility; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Antihepatotoxic; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg; Antileukemic; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml; Antisarcomic; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Kidney); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antiulcer >carbenoxolone; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor; Beta-Blocker; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Diuretic; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM; Hepatoprotective; Hypolipemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Leucocytogenic; NF-kB-Inhibitor; Phagocytotic; Piscicide; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative; Uterotonic; Vasopressor


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity); Allelopathic; Antibacterial; Anticlastogen; Antifertility; Antihepatotoxic; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive; Choleretic; Cytotoxic; Diaphoretic?; Fungicide; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM; Pesticide; Prostaglandigenic; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM

P-CYMENE Shoot 14 - 230 ppm

Analgesic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM; Antibacillary; Antibacterial; Antiflu; Antirheumatalgic; Antiviral; FLavor FEMA 12-250; Fungicide; Herbicide IC50=50 uM; Insectifuge; Irritant; Laxative; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml


Antiherpetic; Antioxidant ID50=85-456 uM; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Pesticide; Pigment; Prooxidant


Larvistat; Pesticide; Pigment

PIPERITENONE Leaf 50 - 860 ppm

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=110 ug/ml; Perfumery; Toxic 10,000/man

PIPERITENONE-OXIDE Leaf 306 - 8,730 ppm

Insecticide; Pesticide

PIPERITONE Leaf 44 - 730 ppm

Antiasthmatic; FLavor FEMA 1-2; Herbicide IC50=30 mM IC50=75 uM; Insectifuge (> DEET); Perfumery; Pesticide

PIPERITONE-OXIDE Leaf 40 - 6,020 ppm

No activity reported.

POMOLIC-ACID Tissue Culture:

AntiHIV EC50=1.4 ug/ml IC50=23.3 ug/ml

POTASSIUM Leaf 17,100 ppm;

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; Antiarrhythmic; Antidepressant; Antifatigue; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic; Antistroke; Anxiolytic; Beta-Blocker; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day; Diuretic; Hypotensive; Vasodilator

PROTEIN Leaf 144,000 ppm; Seed 196,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

PULEGONE Leaf 580 - 9,720 ppm

AChE-Inhibitor; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM IC50=136 ug/ml; Antialzheimeran?; Antibacterial; Anticholinesterase; Antihistaminic; Antipyretic; Avifuge; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Cerebrotoxic orl man; Encephalopathic 80 mg/kg orl rat; FLavor FEMA 5-30; Fungicide; Glutathionalytic; Hallucinogenic; Hepatotoxic; Herbicide IC50=1.5 uM; Insecticide; Insectifuge; Nephrotoxic; Neurotoxic; Perfumery; Pesticide; Pulifuge; Pulmonotoxic; Sedative

ROSMARINIC-ACID Leaf 3,600 ppm; Plant 32,000 ppm;

ABeta-Inhibitor; Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiaggregant; Antiallergic; Antialzheimeran; Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orl ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM; Antibacterial; Anticoagulant; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin 20 mg/kg ivn; Antidepressant; Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg ims; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/l; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=20 ug/ml; AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM; Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene; Antilipoperoxidant; Antimutagenic; Antinephritic; Antioxidant 10 uM EC50=2.7 ug/ml; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM; Antiplaque; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivn; Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol l; Antipulmonotic; Antiradicular; Antishock; Antithyreotropic; Antithyroid; Antiuremic; Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml; Anxiolytic; Apoptotic; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Cancer-Preventive; COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM; COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM; Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Neuroprotective; Pesticide; Radioprotective


No activity reported.

SODIUM Leaf 2,520 ppm;


THUJONE Leaf 20 - 360 ppm

Abortifacient; Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.127 mg/ml; Cerebrodepressant; Convulsant 40 mg/kg; Counterirritant; Emmenagogue; Epileptigenic; Hallucinogenic; Herbicide IC50=22 mM; Neurotoxic; Perfumery; Pesticide; Respirainhibitor; Toxic

URSOLIC-ACID Tissue Culture:

Analgesic; Antialzheimeran; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticancer (Colon); Anticarcinomic; Anticariogenic; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg; Antidiabetic; AntiEBV; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr; Antihistaminic; AntiHIV 6.7 uM EC50=2.0 ug/ml IC50=6.5 ug/ml IC85=18 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM; Antiobesity?; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM; Antitrypanosomic; Antitumor; Antitumor (brain); Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet IC50=15-20 uM; Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary); Antitumor (Stomach); Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor; Beta-Blocker; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Cardioprotective; Cardiotonic; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl; CNS-Depressant; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic 50 ppm 7.2 uM ED50=3.75 ug/ml; Diuretic; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Leucocytogenic; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Piscicide; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml; Protisticide; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat; TOPO-2-Inhibitor; Trypanocide; Vasopressor

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

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