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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Malus domestica BORKH. (Rosaceae) -- Apple

Identifier

019289

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Malus domestica BORKH. (Rosaceae) -- Apple


Chemicals

-D-GLUCITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1,3,3,-TRIMETHYL-DIOXA-2,7-BICYCLO(2,2,1)HEPTANE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-BUTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-DECYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-MONO-LINOLEIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-NONYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-OCTYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

19-HYDROXYURSOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

19-HYDROXYURSONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,4-METHYLENE-CHOLESTEROL Pollen Or Spore: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-BUTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-HEPTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-HEXENAL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-2,3-EPOXY-PENTANE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUT-2-EN-1-AL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUT-3-EN-1-OL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTAN-2-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-PENTAN-2-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-PROPEN-1-AL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-PENTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-PHENETHYLACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-PROPANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

20-HYDROXYURSOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,4-BENZOPYRENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-BETA-19-ALPHA-DIHYDROXY-2-OXO-URS-12-EN-28-OIC-ACID Wood 1,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-HYDROXY-OCTYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-PENTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-HYDROXYMETHYLPROLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5,6-EPOXY-10'-APO-5,6-DIHYDRO-BETA-CAROTENE-3,10'-DIOL Plant 20,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-METHYL-HEPTEN-5-EN-2-ONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

7-HEXANOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ABSCISIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETALDEHYDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Addictive 8 ug/kg SN145:294 ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 4-25 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respiraparalytic DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=43 ug/ml JAF47:4574

ACETIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B

ACETIC-ACID-AMYL-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R722 ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; Narcotic M29

ADENINE Root: DUKE1992A

Antianemic 1.5 g/day MAR ; Antigranulocytopenic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JE26:73 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hyperuricemic MAR ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Lithogenic ABC50:1317.1986 ; Myocardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

ALANINE Fruit 70 - 435 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALPHA-ALANINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-AMINO-BUTYRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID Fruit 180 - 1,120 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Antiaggregant FIH ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=42 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; Antimetastatic FIH ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive FIH ; Immunostimulant 0.12 ml/man/day FIH ; Lymphocytogenic 0.5 ug/ml FIH ; Propecic X10830511 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 39.5 g/day/hmn ARS:451 ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ALPHA-OXOGLUTARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Fruit 2 - 37 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antianginal PIL ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiasthmatic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic DIA ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticonvulsant Synergen FT66:507 ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic DIA ; Antiinfarctal DIA ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiischemic PIL ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC34=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiparkinsonian PIL ; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antistroke PIL ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor (Bladder) PIL ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator PIL

ALUMINUM Fruit 0.4 - 129 ppm DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

AMMONIA(NH3) Fruit Epidermis 235 - 1,029 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AMYGDALIN Seed 6,000 - 13,800 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic PJB1(3):230 ; Antitussive OMM ; Bitter PJB1(3):230 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cyanogenic 52 ; Expectorant OMM ; Toxic PJB1(3):230

AMYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AMYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Ataxigenic ZEB ; FLavor FEMA 70-800 ARC ; Sedative ZEB

AMYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ANILINE Fruit 1.5 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit Epidermis 1.7 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARABINOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGININE Fruit 60 - 373 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ARSENIC Fruit 0.001 - 0.43 ppm DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 20 - 402 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASCORBIDASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASH Fruit 2,300 - 43,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Fruit 171 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

ASPARTIC-ACID Fruit 210 - 2,115 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

AVICULARIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC32=1 uM PC23:1885 IC84=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antibiotic CRC ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 100 uM HH2 ; Diuretic CRC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tissue-Thromboplastin-Inhibitor IC50=54.8 uM X12510836

BARIUM Fruit 0.22 - 8.6 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BENZOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic MAR ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial 33-1,250 ppm JNP49:5750 MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella MIC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 800 ug/ml; Antiyeast MFC=1,600 ug/ml JAF50:3992 ; Choleretic JBH ; Expectorant DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 250 ARC ; Fungicide MFC=1,600 ug/ml; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin JBH ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=640 uM JAF51:2837 ID50=710 uM JAF50:1400 ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B ; Vulnerary JE26:82

BENZYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X10826162 ; Cardiotonic ZEB ; Emetic ZEB ; FLavor FEMA 35-800 ARC ; Hypotensive ZEB ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Tumorigenic ZEB ; Varroacide X10826162

BENZYL-AMINE Fruit 0.3 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Epidermis 0.6 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-ALANINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Avicide JBH ; Neurotoxic to birds JBH

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 76 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BIOTIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialopecic JLR1(2) ; Antidermatitic 3 mg/2x/day PAM ; Antineuralgic JN127:710 ; Antiseborrheic PAM

BORON Fruit 1 - 110 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

BROMINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTYL-CAPROATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTYL-VALERIANATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CADMIUM Fruit 0.002 - 0.026 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive PAM ; Lithogenic PAM ; Nephrotoxic PAM

CAFFEETANNIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAFFEIC-ACID Fruit 85 - 1,270 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Fruit 43 - 570 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CALCIUM-OXALATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Emetic PJB1(1):169 ; Inflammatory PJB1(1):169 ; Laxative PJB1(1):169 ; Lithogenic PJB1(1):169

CAPROALDEHYDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAPROIC-ACID-AMYL-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAPRYLIC-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARBOHYDRATES Fruit 152,250 - 948,550 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAROTENOIDS Plant 126 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CATALASE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant 505

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CHLOROPHYLL Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticancer (Colon) JNU ; Anticancer (Liver) JNU ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antihalitosic DUKE1992B ; Antimenorrhagic 25 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Antimutagenic JAF37:1363 ; Antiotitic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PC27:975 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antisinusitic DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Colorant MAR ; Deodorant M11 ; Dye PJB1(1):171 ; Oxidant PC27:975 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vulnerary DUKE1992B

CHROMIUM Fruit 0.005 - 0.3 ppm DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CIS-2,TRANS-4-ABSCISIC-ACID Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-N-HEX-3-EN-1-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRAMALIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

COBALT Fruit 0.005 - 0.043 ppm DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Fruit 0.24 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

COUMARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CREATINE Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CUTIN Fruit Epidermis: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC90=1 mM 438 ; Antioxidant 4.4 x Vit. E ID50=3.5-22 uM JAF50:166 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

CYANIDIN-3,5-DIGLUCOSIDE Cotyledon: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-3-ARABINOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-3-GALACTOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-7-ARABINOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYSTINE Plant 30 - 187 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

D-2-METHYLBUTAN-1-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-CATECHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anticoagulant DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Vasoconstrictor AYL

D-GALACTURONIC-ACID Plant 13 - 54 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-GLUCONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-L-NONACOSANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DECENOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEHYDROASCORBIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIASTASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIETHYL-AMINE Fruit 3 ppm; DUKE1992A

Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Teratogenic CRC

DIGALACTOSYL-DIGLYCERIDE Fruit 49 - 107 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIHYDROXYTRICARBALLYLIC-ACID Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIPHOSPHATIDYL-GLYCEROL Fruit 4 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Fruit 25 - 35 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ESTRAGOLE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant IC50=320 uM PR4(3):93 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=257.6 uM gpg; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 4.4 uM/15 mos. scu mus AEHD1:139 ; DNA-Binder JBH ; FLavor FEMA 4-150 ARC ; Hepatocarcinogenic 0.23-0.46% diet/12 mos.; Hypothermic JBH ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Mutagenic PJB1(2):269 ; Perfumery M11

ESTRONE Seed 0.1 - 0.13 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiimpotence MAR ; Antimenopausal 0.7-2.8 mg/day/orl/wmn M29 ; Antiprostatadenomic DUKE1992B ; Antivaginitic DUKE1992B ; Aphrodisiac DUKE1992B ; Carcinogenic; Estrogenic 0.1-5 mg/woman/day MAR ; Transdermal

ETHANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R722 ; Anesthetic 4,000 orl cat BBE 6,000 orl rat BBE ; Anhydrotic M29 ; Antiatherosclerotic PMID11020457 ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antipruritic MAR ; Antiseptic M11 ; CNS-Depressant MAR ; Expectorant SHT ; Hepatotoxic M29 ; Hypertensive >1 drink/day X7760897 ; Hypnotic Antidote=Naloxone M29 ; Hypocalcemic 4,000 orl rat BBE ; Hypotensive 1 drink/day X7760897 ; Mucotropic SHT ; Neurolytic M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Sclerosant M29 ; Surfactant SHT ; Teratogenic 6,000 orl dog BBE ; Tremorilytic MAR ; Ulcerogenic 5 ml/kg (50%) orl rat

ETHYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Carminative DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 20-1,500 ARC ; Respirotoxic >400 ppm ARC ; Stimulant DUKE1992B

ETHYL-AMINE Fruit 3 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 30-1,400 ARC

ETHYL-CAPROATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-CROTONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-DECENOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-DODECANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-HEXANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-ISOBUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

ETHYL-METHYLBUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-NONANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 4-600 ARC

ETHYL-OCTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-PENTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-PHENACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 10-1,100 ARC

ETHYL-VALERIANATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FARNESENE Fruit Epidermis: DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone JBH

FAT Fruit 3,210 - 34,200 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 180,000 - 230,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Fruit 4 - 95 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Fruit 5,200 - 131,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLUORINE Fruit 0.1 - 2.1 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FOLACIN Fruit 0.02 - 0.2 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl PAM ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man PAM ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antineuropathic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antipsychotic M29 ; AntiSpina-Bifida DAS ; Hematopoietic M11 ; Uricosuric PAM ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PAM

FORMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X10826162 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisyncopic DUKE1992B ; Astringent M11 ; Corrosive ARC ; Counterirritant M11 ; FLavor FEMA 500-2,500 ARC ; Fungistat JBH ; Fungitoxic JBH ; Irritant M&R670 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Preservative ARC ; Toxic JBH

FR Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRUCTOSE Fruit 50,100 - 60,800 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

FUMARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acidulant MAR ; Antidermatitic WIC ; Antihepatocarcinogenic IC100=1% (diet) CPB38:2012 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Antipsoriac WIC ; Antitumor 411 ; FLavor FEMA 50-3,600 ARC

GALACTANASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GALACTARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-GUANIDINOBUTRAMIDE Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-GUANIDINOBUTYRIC-ACID Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-GUANIDINOPROPIONIC-ACID Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-METHYL-PROLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GERANIOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic; Anthelmintic MAD ; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 7 x phenol W&W MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

GLUCOCEREBROSIDE Plant 34 - 49 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Fruit 17,200 - 18,200 ppm DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUTAMIC-ACID Fruit 156 - 1,244 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLUTAMINE Plant 20 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic 1,000 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antidepressant WER ; Antisickling JNP39:427 ; Antiulcer 1,600 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Catabolic TRA

GLYCERIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Cholesterolytic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatotonic FT5:1986

GLYCINE Plant 80 - 497 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

GLYCOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Cholesterolytic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic PED ; Hepatotonic FT5:1986 ; Irritant M11

GLYOXYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Irritant JBH

GUANIDINE Shoot: DUKE1992A

Antimyasthenic 10-35 mg/kg/day DUKE1992B ; Convulsant DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Hypertensive DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Myostimulant JAD

GUANIDINOACETIC-ACID Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GUANIDINOSUCCINIC-ACID Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEMICELLULOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEPTACOSANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEPTENOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXACOSANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; FLavor FEMA 0.2-25 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HEXYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 3-25 ARC

HEXYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 2-10 ARC

HEXYL-FORMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 10-50 ARC

HISTIDINE Fruit 30 - 187 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

HYDROXYCINNAMIC-ACID Fruit 1,340 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HYPERIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antibacterial PJB1(1):177 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiischemic X13677356 ; Antioxidant DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; Capillarifortificant JBH ; Capillarigenic JBH ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective IC80=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; Hypotensive FT1990:501 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HYPEROSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Analgesic PR14:401 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antibacterial MIC=250-500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticancer PM69:1125 ; Anticapillary-Fragility TOX ; Antidermatitic DUKE1992B ; Antielastase IC50=0.15 ug/ml X11417917 ; Antiflu AYL ; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiinflammatory 1/4 indomethacin PM57:A131 ; Antiischemic X13677356 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=4.6 uM; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral; Antiwrinkle; Calcium-Antagonist X8036895 ; cAMP-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 mg/ml PM57:A133 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillarifortificant JBH ; Capillarigenic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 100 uM HH2 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective IC80=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; Hypotensive ivn dog; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tissue-Thromboplastin-Inhibitor IC50=20.8 uM X12510836 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PM69:1125

I-BUTYL-OCTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-BUTYL-PROPIOANTE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-DECANOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-HEXANOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-PENTANOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-PENTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-PENTYL-FORMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-PENTYL-I-PENTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

I-PROPANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IDAEIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INDOLE-3-ACETIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic JAF42:2048 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Herbicide JAF42:2048 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic EMP6:157 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

INOSITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialopecic DUKE1992B ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic? M29 ; Antineuropathic? 2 g/day WER ; Cholesterolytic 2,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic JBH ; Sweetener JBH ; Ubiquiot JAD

IODINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acnegenic DAS ; Antibacterial AHP146 ; Antigoiter DAS ; Antiseptic AHP146 ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Antiviral AHP146 ; Dermatitigenic DAS ; Fungicide AHP146 ; Goitrogenic DAS ; Hyperthyroid >1 mm/day/diet AHP146 ; Protisticide AHP146 ; Thyrotropic DAS

IRON Fruit 1.1 - 123 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOAMYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOAMYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Irritant ZEB ; Narcotic ZEB ; Perfumery Fragrance ZEB

ISOBUTYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-FORMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOCHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PCF:64 ; Antiseptic JNP46(5) ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ISOCITRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOLEUCINE Fruit 50 - 497 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

ISOPROPYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOQUERCITRIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor ID50=300 ug/ml rat (24 hr.) T15015 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antielastase IC50=0.7 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 450 ; Antiinflammatory X16248545 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant 1/4 quercetin IC50=9.0 uM PR14:501 ; Antiradicular 1/4 quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillarigenic DUKE1992B ; Diaphoretic PJB1(3):242 ; Diuretic 10 ppm HHB ; Hypotensive CPB38:1049 ; Insectiphile JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 550 ug/ml AAC41:992

JASMONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KILOCALORIES Fruit 3,419 /kg; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-EPICATECHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-MALIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-QUINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LACTIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antileukorrheic M29 ; Antioxidant Synergist JBH ; Antivaginitic M29 ; Antixerotic M29 ; FLavor FEMA 10-25,000 ARC ; Irritant ZEB ; Keratolytic MAR

LAURIC-ACID Fruit 10 - 63 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial TFLNO.86 ; Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Antiviral TFLNO.86 ; Candidicide X11600381 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100 JAF50:2231 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100 JAF50:2231 ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS

LEAD Fruit 0.002 - 64 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LECITHIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 40-100 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antiataxic MAR ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidementia M29 ; Antidyskinetic 40-80 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antilithic DAS ; Antimanic PAM ; Antimorphinistic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant Synergist M29 ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antisclerodermic DUKE1992B ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antisprue DUKE1992B ; AntiTourette's 20-50 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Cholinergic MAR ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 20-30 g/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic M11

LEUCINE Fruit 120 - 746 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LINOLENIC-ACID Fruit 870 - 5,411 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LITHIUM Fruit 0.044 - 0.172 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant DAS ; Antihyperthyroid DAS ; Antimanic DAS ; AntiPMS DAS ; Antipsychotic DAS ; Antischizophrenic DAS ; Antiviral JLR2(3):16 ; Cholinergic JLR2(3):16 ; Deliriant DAS ; Natriuretic JLR2(3):16 ; Nephrotoxic DAS

LUTEIN Fruit 0.4 - 5 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic SN159:391 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antimaculitic JNU ; Antinyctalopic JNU ; Antioxidant JN126:2098 ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antiradicular JN126:2098 ; Antiretinitic Optometry 71(3):147 ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACN71:575 ; Colorant JBH ; Prooxidant 5-40 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 2.5 ug PS131:95 ; Retinoprotectant Optometry 71(3):147 ; Ubiquiot JBH

LUTEOXANTHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LYSINE Fruit 20 - 746 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Fruit 48 - 478 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALVIDIN-MONOGLYCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MANGANESE Fruit 29 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MANNOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiadhesive; Anticystitic 0.25-1 tsp 3-4 x/day orl man A&C3:269 ; AntiUTI PIL

MERCURY Fruit 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

Nephrotoxic PAM

METHANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidote =Sodium-bicarbonate M29 ; AntiHIV EC50=<20 ug/ml DUKE1992B

METHIONINE Plant 20 - 124 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 5-20 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

METHYL-2-XI-ACETOXY-20-BETA-HYDROXY-URSONATE Fruit Epidermis: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Perfumery ARC ; Trypsin-Enhancer CAN

METHYL-AMINE Fruit Epidermis 4.5 ppm; DUKE1992A

Irritant DUKE1992B

METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 20-100 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

METHYL-CAPROATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA <1-20 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

METHYL-FORMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-GUANIDINE Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-HEXANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-I-PENTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-N-PENTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-VINYL-KETONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MEVALONIC-ACID Fruit 30 - 36 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MOLYBDENUM Fruit 0.077 - 0.43 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Esophagus)? DAS ; Antitumor (Esophagus)? DAS

MONOGALACTOSYL-DIGLYCERIDE Plant 12 - 42 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MUFA Fruit 150 - 935 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

MYO-INOSITOL Pollen Or Spore 4,500 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRISTIC-ACID Fruit 20 - 124 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

N-ALPHA-ACETYL-AGGININE Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-BUTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-BUTYL-DECANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-BUTYL-FORMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 10-12 ARC

N-BUTYL-N-HEXANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-BUTYL-OCTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-BUTYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 3-30 ARC

N-COUMARYL-QUINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-DECANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEHYL-N-HEXANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEPTANOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEPTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEX-1-EN-3-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEXANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEXYL-OCTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEXYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 5-25 ARC

N-METHYL-BETA-PHENETHYLAMINE Fruit 1.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-METHYL-PHENETHYLAMINE Exocarp 1.3 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 1.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-NONANOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-NONANOL-2-NONANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-OCTANOL-2-OCTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-OCTANONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTANOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTENOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTYL-2-METHYLBUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTYL-AMINE Fruit 0.3 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTYL-DECANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTYL-FORMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTYL-OCTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PROPANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PROPIONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEO-CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Vulnerary CAN210

NEOXANTHIN Fruit Epidermis: DUKE1992A

Colorant JBH ; Ubiquiot JBH

NIACIN Fruit 1 - 7 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICKEL Fruit 0.004 - 0.645 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

NITROGEN Fruit 280 - 4,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NONACOSANE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic 250 ug/mL JAF37:1364.1989 ; Antiviral PS75:161

NONENOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTA-CIS-3-CIS-5-DIEN-1-OL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTA-CIS-3-CIS-5-DIEN-1-OL-ACETATE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTA-TRANS-3-CIS-5-DIEN-1-OL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTA-TRANS-3-CIS-5-DIEN-1-OL-ACETATE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTACOSANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Androgenic LRN-APR88 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-15 mg day; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Hypocholesterolemic PED ; Hypolipidemic DUKE1992B ; Stimulant 2.2 mg/kg orl gpg LRN-APR88

OCTENOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OLEIC-ACID Fruit 140 - 871 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

OXALIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

OXALOACETIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

P-COUMARIC-ACID Fruit 15 - 460 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-COUMARYL-QUINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial POP:58 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PCF:65 ; Antiradicular PMID10616967 ; Antisickling 10.5 ug/ml; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungistat EC50=607 ug/ml NIG ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG ; Prostaglandigenic JBH ; Secretogogue CAN ; Ubiquiot JBH

PALMITIC-ACID Fruit 480 - 2,986 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Fruit 10 - 62 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Fruit 1 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PECTASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PECTIN Fruit 1,400 - 66,585 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PECTIN-DEMETHOXYXYLASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENTYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENTYL-HEXANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PEROXIDASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENOLICS Plant 1,100 - 3,400 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENYLALANINE Fruit 50 - 311 ppm DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHLORETAMIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHLORETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic PAM ; Antibacterial 30 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiestrogenic JMF2:139 ; Antifeedant IC52=<1000 ppm diet 438 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC33=1.25 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=46.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227

PHLORETIN-4'-O-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE Fruit 6,486 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHLORETIN-XYLOGLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHLORIZIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant EC50=200 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antimalarial PR4(4):136 ; Glucosuric 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Neuroparalytic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative DUKE1992B ; Sweetener POP:171

PHOSPHATIDYL-CHOLINE Fruit 189 - 214 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 10-25 g/day/orl; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM

PHOSPHATIDYL-ETHANOLAMINE Fruit 101 - 124 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHATIDYL-GLYCEROL Fruit 8 - 27 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHATIDYL-INOSITOL Fruit 53 - 59 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHATIDYL-SERINE Fruit 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHATIDYLIC-ACID Fruit 3 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 68 - 925 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PHYTOSTEROLS Fruit 120 - 745 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic MPP

PIPECOLINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POLYGALACTOSYL-DIGLYCERIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POLYGALACTURONASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POLYPHENOLASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POMOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

AntiHIV EC50=1.4 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=23.3 ug/ml JNP61:1090

POMONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Fruit 1,110 - 12,140 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROCYANIDINS Leaf: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC30-90=150-333 ug/ml LAB54 ; Antiallergic IJO16:204 ; Antianaphylactic OPC ; Antibacterial PM56(6):577 ; Antibiotic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic 2 x phenylbutazone; Antierythemic OPC ; Antiexudative APP16:50 ; Antigastritic OPC ; Antiherpetic EMP5:197 ; Antihistaminic OPC ; AntiHIV DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant OPC ; Antiradicular OPC ; Antiviral EMP5:197 ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker 10 uM PC44:441 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=1.1 uM/l ARZ44:592 ; Capillariprotective IC50=1-80 uM/l ARZ44:592 ; Capillaritonic APP16:50 ; Collagenase-Inhibitor IC50=38 uM/l ARZ44:592 ; Deodorant LAF ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=4.24 uM/l ARZ44:592 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50=80 uM/l; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=2.4 uM/l ARZ44:592 IC50=>40 CPB38:1225

PROLINE Plant 20 - 435 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYL-2-METHYLBUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYL-FORMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYL-N-PENTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Fruit 1,870 - 12,800 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic JAF49:5674 ; Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor X16500886 ; Antiarrhythmic ACM:407 ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial PR4(5):198 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antiischemic JBH ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic X10856425 ; Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Antimutagenic X9025787 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHT 10 x alpha-tocopherol JAF49:5674 2/3 quercetin; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 IC75=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antiseptic YAK122:487 ; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM PR4(2):73 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Mouth) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Skin) JAF49:5674 ; Antitussive ACM:200 ; Antiviral JAF45:1039 ; Apoptotic X10856425 ; Carcinogenic JAF49:5674 ; Cardioprotective X16407799 ; Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat JAF49:5674 ; Fungicide 500 ug/ml 438 ; Glutathione-Depleting JAF49:5674 ; Hepatotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Nephrotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic EMP1:124 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Secretogogue CAN ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Ubiquiot JBH

PUFA Fruit 1,050 - 6,535 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacne MAR ; Antieczemic MAR ; AntiMS MAR ; Antipolyneuritic MAR

PYROXIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PYRROLIDINE Fruit Epidermis 1.5 ppm; DUKE1992A

Perfumery ARC

PYRUVIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-110 ARC

QUERCETIN Pericarp 58 - 263 ppm DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 IC50=0.344 uM ZZZ18:623 IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic JBH ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM X11714299 IC50=7.5 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM JAF45:4505 IC50=55 uM EMP5:333 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM JIM127:546 ; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antianaphylactic PR4(5):201 ; Antiangiogenic EJP459:255 ; Antiarthritic COX ; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic X11020457 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM MED ; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract PM56(3):258 ; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day PAM ; Anticomplementary JNP65:1457 ; AntiCrohn's PAM ; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks X11272677 ; Antidepressant JMF6:391 ; Antidermatitic PAM ; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antiencephalitic EMP5:199 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrosarcomic JAF45:4505 ; Antiflu V&D ; Antigastric RR21:85 ; Antigonadotropic JBH ; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):171 ; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antihydrophobic V&D ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg FT5:1990 ; Antileishmanic IC50=64 JNP65:1457 ; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM BO2 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml MPT ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antimyocarditic EMP5:199 ; Antinitrosaminic PAL:339 ; Antinociceptive PR14:40 ; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E BO2 ED50=2.3 uM PR14:93 IC47=10 uM JMF5:1 IC96=300 ppm PCF ; Antipancreatitic JNU ; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antipermeability DUKE1992B ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64 JNP65:1457 ; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn PAM ; Antipodriac; Antipolio PAM ; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid PCF:51 ; Antiprostatitic JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithrombic PAL:339 ; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13 JNP65:1457 ; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF45:4505 ; Antitumor (Lung) X10918203 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter PAM ; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml JNP55:1732 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor NIG ; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml QRNM(SUMMER):91 ; Bradycardiac KCH ; Calmodulin-Antagonist PAM ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus NIG ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; COMT-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM BO2 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml PM56(6):677 IC82=100 ug

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Apples

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

71(3):147: Jim Duke's personal files

A&C3:269: Jim Duke's personal files

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABC50:1317.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:407: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 407.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACN71:575: Jim Duke's personal files

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:139: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP146: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

APP16:50: Jim Duke's personal files

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARS:451: Ferretti, A., Flanagan, V. P. 1996. Antithromboxane Activity of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid: A Pilot Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 54(6): 451-455. ARS, USDA.

ARZ44:592: Jim Duke's personal files

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

B02: Jim Duke's personal files

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2012: Akao, M. and Kuroda, K. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Fumaric Acid on Hepatocarcinogenesis by Thioacetamide in Mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(7): 2012-2014, 1990.

CPB38:2201: Mayumi Ito (nee Someya), et al. 1990. Hepatoprotective Compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2201-2203, 1990.

CPB38:2733: Terashima, S., Shimizu, M., Nakayama, H., Ishikura, M., et al. 1990. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plant of "Sinfito," Potentilla candicans, and Further Synthesis of Their Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull 38(10):2733-2736, 1990

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:154: Jim Duke's personal files

DIA: Soumyanath, A. Ed. 2006. Traditional Medicines for Modern Times - Antidiabetic Plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 314 pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP459:255: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIH: Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT1990:501: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:508: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT62:372: Pathak, D., Pathak, K., Singla*, A.K. 1991. Flavonoids as medicinal agents - Recent advances. Fitoterapia 62(5): 62, 1991.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:507: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:200: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HG22:27: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:24: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:204: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAC45:3362: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF37:1363: Lawson, T., J. Nunnaly, B. Walker, E. Bresnick, D. Wheeler, and M. Wheeler. 1989. Isolation of compounds with antimutagenic activity from savoy chieftain cabbage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37:1363-1367.

JAF37:1364.1989: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF42:2048: Korhammer, S.A. and Haslinger, E. 1994. Isolation of a Biologically Active Substance from Rhizomes of Quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould]. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 2048-2050.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:5674: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1400: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:166: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3992: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5884: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6953: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:73: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:82: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.

JIM127:546: Jim Duke's personal files.

JLR1(2): Jim Duke's personal files

JLR2(3):16: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:139: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 139.1999.

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:391: Jim Duke's personal files

JN126:2098: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:710: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:427: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP46(5): J. Nat. Prod. 46(5).

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(5):1239: Nakane, H., Fukushima, M., and Ono*, K. Differential Inhibition Of Reverse Transcriptase And Various DNA Polymerases By Digallic Acid And Its Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5): 1234-1240, 1990.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP58:217: Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1457: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JSPR22:141.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K25469: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB54: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-APR88: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN-SEP97: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R670: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R722: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M28: Martindale's 28th

M29: Martindale's 29th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MEDSCAPE'89: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

OMM: Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)

OPC: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:339: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:975: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PC44:441: Zhu, M., Phillipson, J. D., Greengrass, P. M., Bowery, N. E., Cai, Y. 1997. Plant Polyphenols: Biologically Active Compounds or Non-Selective Binders to Protein? Phytochemistry, 44(3): 441-447.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:14: Naim, M., Zehavi, U., Nagy, S., and Rouseff, R.L. Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Off-Flavor Precursors in Citrus Fruits and Their Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.14.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:64: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 64.

PCF:65: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 65.

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):177: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):230: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM239:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(2):171: Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., and Dorfman, P. 1989. Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Injury in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes: A Model for Studying Anti-Hepatotoxic Crude Drugs. Planta Medica 56(2): 171-173, 1990.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):257: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):577: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):660: Planta Medica, 56(6): 660, 1990.

PM56(6):677: Matsukawa, Y., et al. The Effect of Quercetin and Other Flavonoids on Cell Cycle Progresssion and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 56(6): 677, 1990.

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A131: Planta Medica, 57: A131, 1991.

PM57:A133: Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID10616967: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID11020457: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:171: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:58: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR11:281: Ibewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:40: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:501: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:93: Seidel, V., Verholle, M., Malard, Y., Tillequin, F., Fruchart, J-C., Duriez, P., Bailleul, F., Teissier, E. 2000. Phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra L. Inhibit in vitro LDL Peroxidation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 93-98.

PR4(2):73: Ortiz de Urbina, J.J., Martin, M.L., Sevilla, M.A., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., and San Roman, L. Antispasmodic Activity on Rat Smooth Muscle of Polyphenol Compounds Caffeic and Protocathechic Acids. Phytotherapy Research 4(2): 73, 1990.

PR4(3):93: Laekeman, G.M., Van Hoof, L., Haemers, A., Vanden Berghe, D.A., Herman, A.G., and Vlietinck, A.J. Eugenol a Valuable Compound for In Vitro Experimental Research and Worthwhile for Further In Vivo Investigation. Phytotherapy Research 4(3): 93, 1990.

PR4(4):136: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR4(5):201: Meli, R., Autore, G., Di Carlo, G., Capasso, F. Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 201, 1990.

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QRNM(SUMMER):91: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RR21:85: Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT: Schulz, V, Hansel, R and Tyler, VE. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy - A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. 1st English Edition. Translated by Terry C. Telger. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. 306 pp.

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN145:294: Science News, 145: 294.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN159:391: Jim Duke's personal files

SPJ4:45: Al-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

T15015: Jim Duke's personal files

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TFLNO.86: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TRA: Tramil

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZZZ18:623: Mao, X. M., Zhang, J. Q. 1993. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi , 18(10): 623-624.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Tue Oct 27 10:42:54 EDT 2015