Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae) -- Elecampane

Identifier

019922

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae) -- Elecampane


Chemicals

1-DEOXY-8-EPIIVANGUSTIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1BETA,10ALPHA-EPOXY-1,10-H-CIS-INUNOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1BETA-HYDROXYALANTOLACTONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-OXOALANTOLACTONE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-EPIISOINUVISCOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4ALPHA-H-CONFERTIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4BETA,5ALPHA-EPOXY-4,5-CIS-INUNOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4H-TOMENTOSIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-EPIIVANGUSTIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-EPITOMENTOSIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

9-ISOBUTYRYLOXY-COSTULONIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

9-ISOVALERYLOXY-COSTULONIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

9BETA-(2-METHYLBUTYRYLOXY)-COSTULONIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

9BETA-HYDROXYCOSTULONIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANTIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANTOL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANTOLACTONE Root: DUKE1992A

Allergenic JBH ; Anthelmintic 9-200 mg/child DUKE1992B ; Antiamebic ABS ; Antibacterial MIC=32 ug/ml; Antibiotic BIS ; Antifeedant JBH ; Antiinflammatory 411 ; Antilymphocytic M&R120 ; Antioxidant PMP23:51 ; Antiseptic PR14:303 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor; Anxiolytic IJO16:4 ; Cholagogue JBH ; Choleretic BIS ; Cytotoxic ED50=1.4 DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic BIS ; Diuretic BIS ; Expectorant JBH ; Fungicide 15-35 ug/ml; Herbistat JBH ; Hyperglycemic CAN ; Hypoglycemic CAN ; Hypotensive 411 ; Immunostimulant 411 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Mycobactericide MIC=32 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide ABS ; Secretogogue JBH ; Secretolytic BIS ; Tranquilizer? IJO16:4 ; Trichomonicide ABS ; Urinary-Antiseptic JBH ; Vermifuge 150-200 mg/cat

ALANTOLIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANTOPICRIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

AZULENE Root: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic IWU ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory PEP ; Antipyretic HG20:40 ; Antiseptic 6-500 VAL ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antiulcer ED50=150 (orl) DUKE1992B ; Hepatoregenerative CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BETA-SITOSTEROL Root: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETA-SITOSTEROL-GLUCOSIDE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DAMMARADIENOL Root: DUKE1992A

Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral; Pesticide DUKE1992B

DAMMARADIENYL-ACETATE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIHYDROALANTOLACTONE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIHYDROISOALANTOLACTONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

EO Fruit 10,000 - 40,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EUDESMADIEN-4-(15),7(11)-OLID-(8BETA,12) Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EUDESMADIEN-5,7(11)-OLID-(8BETA,12) Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRIEDELIN Root: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory 30 mg/kg DUKE1992B ; Diuretic JBH

GAMMA-SITOSTEROL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GERMACRENE-D Root: DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone DUKE1992B

GERMACRENE-D-LACTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HELENALIN Root: DUKE1992A

Allergenic VET94 ; Analgesic CRC ; Antiarthritic 2.5 mg/kg EMP1;21 ; Antibacterial LRN-FEB91 ; Antibiotic AEH ; Antiedemic EMP1:21 ; Antifeedant DUKE1992B ; Antihyperlipidemic BIS ; Antiinflammatory EMP1:122 ; Antiplatelet AEH ; Antirheumatic BIS ; Antiseptic CRC ; Antitumor ACM:355 ; Antiulcer 40 mg/kg DUKE1992B ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Cardiotoxic JBH ; Cytoprotective JNP53(4):803 ; Cytotoxic ED50=0.1 ug/ml ACM:354 ; Degranulant JBH ; Dermatitigenic CRC ; Fungicide JBH ; Immunostimulant ED42=1 uM ACM162 ; Inotropic EC50=14 WIC ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant JBH ; Mitogenic 2.5 mg/kg EMP1:21 ; Molluscicide JBH ; Paralytic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide JBH ; Respiroanaleptic BIS ; Sympathomimetic WIC ; Vermifuge JBH

HELENIN Root: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic BIS ; Antibacterial 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antidiptheric DUKE1992B ; Antitubercular DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HELIANTHENIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INOSITOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antialopecic DUKE1992B ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic? M29 ; Antineuropathic? 2 g/day WER ; Cholesterolytic 2,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic JBH ; Sweetener JBH ; Ubiquiot JAD

INULENIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INULIN Root 200,000 - 440,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor (diagnostic)=50 mg/kg/ivn/man M29 ; Anticolitic? JN129:1395S ; Antidiabetic EJC49S:S145 ; Antidiarrheic JN129:1395S ; Antiobesity? JN129:1395S ; Antiosteoporotic? JN129:1395S ; Bifidogenic EJC49S:S145 ; Chemopreventive (Breast Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Chemopreventive (Colon Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Expectorant PED ; Gastrostimulant EJC49S:S145 ; Hypocholesterolemic EJC49S:S145 ; Hypoglycemic EJC49S:S145 ; Immunostimulant; Laxative JN129:1395S ; Lipolytic; Prebiotic; Probiotic; Probiotigenic JN129:1395S

INULINASE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOALANTOLACTONE Root: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic DUKE1992B ; Antiamebic ABS ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory ABS ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm PM:1986 ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide ABS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Nematicide ABS ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide ABS ; Trichomonicide ABS

NONACOSAN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PECTINS Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHYTOMELANE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PSEUDOINULIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RESIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SCOPOLETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM 438 ; Analgesic PM56(6):595 ; Anesthetic HDN ; Antiadrenergic HDN ; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm X11714299 IC50=65 uM X11714299 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihepatotoxic BIS ; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear PM56(6):504 ; Antileukotrienogenic PM56(6):595 ; Antimutagenic MAB ; Antioxidant PH2 ; Antiproliferant X11749777 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Apoptotic X11749777 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; CNS-Stimulant WBB ; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM BIOSIS'96 ; Hepatoprotective WIC ; Herbicide JBH ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:165 ; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor X11575966 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin PC29(6):1789 ; Phytohormonal JBH ; Uterosedative 411

STIGMASTEROL Root: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

SYNANTHRIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

UMBELLIFERONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=4.8 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC94=2 mM 438 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antiedemic HDN ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory RWG141 ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic FT63(5):387 ; Cancer-Preventive PM1987:526 ; Candidicide FT63(5):387 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide 411 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photoactive FT63(5):387 ; Sunscreen M11 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor MAB

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Elecampane

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABS: Abstract (See species file)

ACM162: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:354: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:355: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH: De Smet, P.A.G.M., Keller, K., Hansel, R. and Chandler, R.F., eds. 1993. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs 2. Springr-Verlag, Berlin. 348pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BIOSIS'96: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJC49S:S145: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:122: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:21: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1;21: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:165: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 165

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FT1990:503: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(5):387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG20:40: HerbalGram No. 20, page 40.

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JN129:1395S: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(4):803: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-FEB91: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

M&R120: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29(6):1789: Jim Duke's personal files

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PM1987:526: Gawron, A. and Glowniak, K. 1987. Cytostatic Activity of Coumarins in vitro. Planta Medica 1987: 526.

PM56(6):504: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):595: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

VET94: Tyler, V.E.. 1994.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

X11575966: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X11749777: Jim Duke's personal files

X11988857: Jim Duke's personal files

X17350814: Jim Duke's personal files

X17358014: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Wed Nov 4 09:44:04 EST 2015