Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Illicium verum HOOK. f. (Illiciaceae) -- Chinese Star Anise, Chinesischer Sternanis (Ger.), Star Anise, Sternanis (Ger.), anis de China (Sp.), anis estrellado (Sp.)

Identifier

021097

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Illicium verum HOOK. f. (Illiciaceae) -- Chinese Star Anise, Chinesischer Sternanis (Ger.), Star Anise, Sternanis (Ger.), anis de China (Sp.), anis estrellado (Sp.)


Chemicals

1,4-CINEOLE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1,8-CINEOLE Fruit 1 - 3,500 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

1-METHYL-4-ISOPROPENYL-BENZENE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-(BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYLOXY)-BENZOIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLO-AROMADENDRENE Fruit 1,050 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-COPAENE Fruit 25 - 1,100 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CUBEBENE Fruit 200 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-HUMULENE Fruit 1 - 900 ppm DUKE1992A

Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Perfumery JBH

ALPHA-MUUROLENE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Fruit 435 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial CWW ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Dermal JBH ; Emetic PJB1(1) ; FLavor FEMA 10-130 ARC ; Fungicide HH2 ; Insectiphile PEP ; Irritant JBH ; Laxative PJB1(1) ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ALPHA-PINENE Fruit 50 - 1,310 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-SANTALENE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-TERPINENE Fruit 70 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic PR14:623

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Fruit 85 - 200 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

BETA-BISABOLENE Fruit 1 - 75 ppm DUKE1992A

Abortifacient JE32:174 ; Antirhinoviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC57=100 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Antiviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Perfumery ARC ; Stomachic X1469612

BETA-COPAENE Fruit 500 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-ELEMENE Fruit 1 - 650 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) MPT ; Antigliomic X12969529 ; Antiproliferant X12969529 ; Antitumor (Cervix) MPT ; Apoptotic X12969529

BETA-PHELLANDRENE Fruit 220 - 835 ppm DUKE1992A

Expectorant JBH ; Fungicide HH2 ; Perfumery M11

BETA-PINENE Plant 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-SELININE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALAMENE Fruit 650 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAMPHENE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CARVONE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R683 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4-1.8 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol W&W ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JNP65:953 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 80-3,000 ARC ; Fungistat JNP65:953 ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermicide DUKE1992B

CARYOPHYLLENE Fruit 85 - 3,600 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CINNAMIC-ALCOHOL Fruit 1 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R370 ; FEMA 3-700 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

CIS-ALPHA-BERGAMOTENE Fruit 1 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-ANETHOLE Fruit 1 - 140 ppm DUKE1992A

Toxic 15 x trans-anethole ARC

CIS-BETA-FARNESENE Fruit 1 - 40 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-BETA-OCIMENE Fruit 100 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELTA-3-CARENE Fruit 25 - 465 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic? M&R184 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Antiinflammatory ipr IJO15(4):194 ; Dermatitigenic M&R520 ; FLavor FEMA ARC ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant PJB1(2):263 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

DELTA-CADINENE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

EO Fruit 100,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 25,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ESTRAGOLE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant IC50=320 uM PR4(3):93 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=257.6 uM gpg; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 4.4 uM/15 mos. scu mus AEHD1:139 ; DNA-Binder JBH ; FLavor FEMA 4-150 ARC ; Hepatocarcinogenic 0.23-0.46% diet/12 mos.; Hypothermic JBH ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Mutagenic PJB1(2):269 ; Perfumery M11

FENCHONE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Anticholinesterase LGR ; Counterirritant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 0.1-5 ARC ; Perfumery M11 ; Secretolytic BIS

FENICULIN Fruit 275 - 2,550 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FLAVONOL-GLYCOSIDES Fruit 300 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-TERPINENE Fruit 1 - 75 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

KAEMPFEROL-3-0-GALACTOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-0-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-0-RUTINOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Fruit 100 - 5,220 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINALOL Fruit 250 - 1,400 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LONGIFOLENE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-ANISATE Fruit 1 - 300 ppm DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 2-10 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

METHYL-CHAVICOL Fruit 280 - 6,500 ppm DUKE1992A

Calcium-Antagonist IC50=258 uM LAB58 ; DNA-Binder PJB1(2):278 ; Hepatocarcinogenic BIS ; Hypothermic PJB1(2):278 ; Insecticide; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRCENE Fruit 40 - 200 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NEROLIDOL Fruit 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC=25-200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antifeedant 1 mM (diet) TOX ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

P-ANISALDEHYDE Fruit 190 - 850 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-75 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; Insecticide JBH ; Irritant ZEB ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide HH2 ; Sedative ZEB

P-CYMENE Fruit 1 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-CYMENE-8-OL Fruit 200 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

P-METHOXY-PHENYL-PROPAN-2-ONE Fruit 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

P-METHOXY-PROPAN-2-ONE Plant 75 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-0-GALACTOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-0-GLYCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-0-RUTINOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-0-XYLOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-O-RHAMNOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticomplementary MSC'96

SABINENE Fruit 20 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SAFROLE Plant: DUKE1992A

Anesthetic JE26:79 ; Antiaggregant IC50=110 uM JE29:184 ; Antibacterial JE26:79 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiseptic M11 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=57 uM gpg IC50=58 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic M11 ; Carminative JE26:80 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Controlled HG20:15 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer CAN ; Cytochrome-P488-Inducer CAN ; DNA-Binder JBH ; Hepatocarcinogenic CAN ; Hepatoregenerative CRC ; Hepatotoxic M29 ; Hypothermic JBH ; Irritant RIN ; Mutagenic AHP152 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Pediculicide M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychoactive RJH ; Tremorigenic AFR27:212

TERPINEN-4-OL Fruit 1 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TERPINOLENE Fruit 5 - 435 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antioxidant X14664510 ; Deodorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 15-60 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TRANS-ALPHA-BERGAMOTENE Plant 1 - 160 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRANS-ANETHOLE Fruit 39,300 - 45,450 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 10-100 ug/ml PM67:564 ; Anesthetic PM67:564 ; Antigenotoxic 40-400 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antioxidant X10925395 ; Antiradicular X10925395 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=75.2 uM gpg (weak activity); FLavor FEMA 1,250-3,150 ARC ; Sweetener 13 x sucrose

TRANS-BETA-FARNESENE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TRANS-METHYL-ISOEUGENOL Fruit 60 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Star anise

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:139: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:212: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP152: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

HG20:15: HerbalGram No. 20, page 15.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

IJO15(4):194: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 15(4): 194, 1990+

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:79: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE29:184: Janssens, J., Laekeman, G.M., Pieters, L.A.C., Totte, J., Herman, A.G., and Vlietinck, A.J. 1990. Nutmeg Oil: Identification and Quantitation of its Most Active Constituents as Inhibitors of Platelet Aggregation. J.of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 179-188, 1990.

JE32:174: Jim Duke's personal files

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP57:658: Denyer, C.V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D.M., Ellis, M.R., and Yound, D.A.B. Isolation of Antirhinoviral Sesquiterpenes From Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Natural Products, 57(5): 658-662, 1994.

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:953: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LGR: L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R184: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R370: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R514: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R520: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R683: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):263: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):278: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM67:564: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(3):93: Laekeman, G.M., Van Hoof, L., Haemers, A., Vanden Berghe, D.A., Herman, A.G., and Vlietinck, A.J. Eugenol a Valuable Compound for In Vitro Experimental Research and Worthwhile for Further In Vivo Investigation. Phytotherapy Research 4(3): 93, 1990.

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

X10408241: Jim Duke's personal files

X10434134: Jim Duke's personal files

X10606544: Jim Duke's personal files

X10701181: Jim Duke's personal files

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X18072821: Jim Duke's personal files

X180905647: Jim Duke's personal files

X7199340: Jim Duke's personal files

X9242356: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK112:645: Yamahara, J., et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of... Yakugaku Zasshi 112: 645-655 (1992).

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Tue Oct 27 10:36:58 EDT 2015