Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH. EX DC. (Fabaceae) -- Chinese Licorice, Gan-Cao, Kan-Tsao

Identifier

019312

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH. EX DC. (Fabaceae) -- Chinese Licorice, Gan-Cao, Kan-Tsao


Chemicals

2-METHYL-7-HYDROXYISOFLAVONE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

28-HYDROXYGLYCYRRHETIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-O-METHYLGLYCYROL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARSENIC Root 0.29 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASPARANIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETULINIC-ACID Root: JAD

Anthelmintic X11315752 ; Antibacterial X10630117 ; Anticancer JBH ; Anticarcinomic JBH ; Antiedemic X7701004 ; AntiHIV 14.8 uM EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antileukemic X9353895 ; Antimalarial IC50=19-26 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimelanomic NYT3/28/95 ; Antinociceptive; Antiplasmodial PR13:115 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral 14.8 uM; Apoptotic; Cytotoxic 16.4 uM JNP66:263 50-100 ppm BPCC ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor X11684183 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 200 ug/ml PC48:495 IC50=101 uM YHH30:621

CALCIUM Root 6,850 - 23,500 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

COPPER Root 13 - 14 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

GLABRIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLABROLIDE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Root: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUCURONIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

Antidote (Camphor) PJB1(3):241 ; Antidote (Morphine) PJB1(3):241 ; Antihepatotoxic PJB1(3):241 ; Detoxicant M11

GLYCYROL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLYCYRRHETIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

AntiAddisonian DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 600 mg/kg ipr PM57:527 ; Antianaphylactic PM57:527 ; Antiasthmatic 411 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticirrhotic PAM ; Antidiuretic JBH ; Antiedemic IWU ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antihepatotoxic 50-500 ug/ml; Antiherpetic PAM ; Antiinflammatory JPP42:199 ; Antimelanomic JPP42:199 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant 411 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antistomatitic PAM ; Antitumor-Promoter JPP42:199 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer PAM ; Antivaccinia EMP5:213 ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hepatoprotective 411 ; Hypertensive DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant EMP6:189 ; Interferonogenic 411 ; Mineral-Corticoid 411 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GLYCYRRHIZIN Root: DUKE1992A

Adrenocorticotropic PJB1(1):176 ; Amphiestrogenic PAM ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; AntiAddisonian DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 411 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiarthritic EMP102(S-9):65 ; Antiasthmatic 411 ; Antibacterial PAM ; Anticariogenic 411 ; Anticataract PAL:286 ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiptheric PAM ; Antidote PAM ; Antiedemic IWU ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antigingivitic W&M268 ; Antihepatotic CPB38:212 ; Antihepatotoxic 1,000 ug/ml; Antiherpetic PAM ; AntiHIV 0.6 mM; Antiinflammatory 411 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant 411 ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiprostaglandin PAL:292 ; Antiradicular PAL:292 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic EMP5:212 ; Antistomatitic PJB1(1):176 ; Antitetanic PAM ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer NIG ; Antivaccinic PJB1(1):176 ; Antiviral 8 mM EMP6:189 ; Cancer-Preventive NAH18(9):4 ; Capillariprotective EMP6:189 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Ergogenic 40-80 mg/man/day/shortterm HV2(3):9 ; Estrogenic PAM ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 5-60 ARC ; Hepatoprotective ACM:207 ; Hypertensive DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant; Interferonogenic PAM ; MAO-Inhibitor IC50=160 FPC2:140 IC50=160 uM CPB39:1238 ; Mineral-Corticoid 411 ; Mitogenic; Pancreaprotective DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 100 mg/kg igs mus KHP:227 ; Pseudoaldosteronistic ACM:9 ; Reverse-Transcriptase-Inhibitor PAL:286 ; Sweetener 50 x sucrose 411

IRON Root 180 - 280 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOGLYCYROL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOLIQUIRITIGENIN Root: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 0.1 ug/ml IC50=0.32 uM; Antiaggregant PM56(3):258 ; Antiallergic X16459097 ; Antidepressant 411 ; Antidiabetic PM56(3):255 ; Antiischemic X16459097 ; Antioxidant X16459097 ; AntiPAF PH2 ; Antispasmodic PMP23:56 ; Antitumor X16459097 ; Antiulcer PMP23:56 ; Antiviral X16459097 ; Apoptotic PM67:754 ; Cancer-Preventive; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PH2 ; Estrogenic X16459097 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor PH2 ; MAO-Inhibitor EC50=17 uM WIC IC50=>200 FPC2:140 ; Myorelaxant X18462716 ; Peroxidase-Inhibitor PH2 ; Pigment JBH ; Quinone-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=27.3 uM JNP66:583 IC76=10 ug/ml JNP66:583 ; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 uM X2590456 ; Vasorelaxant X16459097

ISOLIQUIRITIN Root: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=0.72 uM PM56(3):254 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; MAO-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin DUKE1992B

LICOFLAVONE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LICORICIDIN Root: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM PAT0368,517

LICORICONE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LICORINONE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIQUIRITIGENIN Root: DUKE1992A

Antidepressant 411 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antileukemic IC50=0.29 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antispasmodic PMP23:56 ; Antiulcer PMP23:56 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; CNS-Active JBH ; Fungicide ED50=>100; Hemoglobin-Inducer JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor EC50=17uM; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin JLI

LIQUIRITIN Root: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory 411 ; Antiulcer PJB1(1):179 ; Fungicide PJB1(1):179

MAGNESIUM Root 3,690 - 5,070 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Root 13 - 26 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MANNITOL Root: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic X1482539 ; Anthelmintic WOI ; Antiglaucomic MAR ; Antiinflammatory WOI ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic M29 ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiradicular PCF:146 ; AntiReye's M29 ; Antispasmodic WOI ; Diuretic M11 ; Emetic MAR ; Flatugenic M29 ; Laxative; Nephrotoxic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sweetener JBH

POTASSIUM Root 2,500 - 3,140 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

SAPONINS Root 60,000 - 140,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antihepatomic NR54:S71 ; Antimutagenic NR54:S71 ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antitumor (Ovary) NR54:S71 ; Immunomodulator NR54:S71

SODIUM Root 323 - 1,340 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

SUCROSE Root: DUKE1992A

Aggregant PAM ; Antihiccup 1 tsp M29 ; Antiophthalmic M29 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Atherogenic PAM ; Collyrium JBH ; Demulcent JBH ; Flatugenic PFH46:77 ; Hypercholesterolemic PAM ; Preservative M11 ; Sweetener 1 x sucrose M11 ; Triglycerigenic PAM ; Uricogenic PAM ; Vulnerary M29

URALENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Root 11 - 13 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Gan cao

Commonsteps

References

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:207: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 207.

ACM:9: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BPCC: Biosyn. Prod. Cancer Chemotherapy (Petit et al)

CPB38:212: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB39:1238: Jim Duke's personal files

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP102(S-9):65: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:212: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:213: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FPC2:140: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

HV2(3):9: Jim Duke's personal files

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JLI: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:583: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:199: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KHP:227: Ren, J., Cheng, J. X., Wang, Z. G. 1988. Effects of Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate on the Synthesis of Prostaglandins E2 and F2-alpha. K'o Hsueh T'ung Pao, (3): 227-229.

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NAH18(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

NYT3/28/95: New York Times, 3/28/95.

PAL:286: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:292: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PAT0368,517: Yamaguchi, T., Sato, J., Mihashi, H., Nomura, T. 1991. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Benzopyrans for Treatment of Diseases Associated with Diabetes. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-03 68,517. 9pp.

PC48:495: Dunstan, C. A., Liu, B., Welch, C. J., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Alphitol, a Phenolic Substance from Alphitonia zizyphoides which Inhibits Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in vitro. Phytochemistry, 48(3): 495-497.

PCF:146: Jim Duke's personal files

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):176: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):179: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):241: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):254: Aida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.

PM56(3):255: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:527: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:9: Recio, M., et al. 1994. Investigations on the Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas*. Planta Medica, 61: 9.

PM67:754: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:56: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

W&M268: Jim Duke's personal files

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10630117: Jim Duke's personal files

X11315752: Jim Duke's personal files

X11684183: Jim Duke's personal files

X1482539: Jim Duke's personal files

X16459097: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X18462716: Jim Duke's personal files

X2590456: Jim Duke's personal files

X7701004: Jim Duke's personal files

X9353895: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH30:621: Huang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Fri Nov 6 10:28:23 EST 2015