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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Glehnia littoralis F. SCHMIDT & MIQUEL (Apiaceae) -- Bei Sha Shen

Identifier

019003

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Glehnia littoralis F. SCHMIDT & MIQUEL (Apiaceae) -- Bei Sha Shen


Chemicals

7-O-(3,3-DIMETHYLALLYL)-SCOPOLETIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-(1,1-DIMETHYLALLYL)-5-HYDROXYPSORALEN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-GERANYLOXYPSORALEN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLOISOIMPERATORIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BERGAPTEN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant PC41:525 ; Antiapertif DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic 25 mg/kg ipr mus JNP60:249 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antijet-lag NIG ; Antileukodermic JBH ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antiplatelet PC41:525 ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Calcium-Antagonist PCA3:42 ; Cancer-Preventive PM1987:526 ; Carcinogenic CAN ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Depressant HDN ; DME-Inhibitor IC50=96 uM ACM:134 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Insecticide FT:1984 ; Lipolytic PJB1(2):262 ; Molluscicide FT:1984 ; Mutagenic JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phototoxic PAP5:159 ; Piscicide JBH

BERGAPTIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALCIUM Root 1,930 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CNIDILIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

COPPER Root 15 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

IMPERATORIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Antiaflatoxin 0.7 ppm X11714299 IC50=2.66 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant PC41:525 ; Antialopecic MAR ; Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antileukodermic DUKE1992B ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antimutagenic PR4:216 ; Antiplatelet PC41:525 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC86=50 ug/ml; Antivitiligic DUKE1992B ; Bufocide JBH ; Calcium-Antagonist 31.6 ug/ml gpg K27424 IC50=4 ug/ml PCA3:42 ; Cancer-Preventive 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor 2 nM MED97 ; DME-Inhibitor IC50=116 uM ACM:134 ; Hepatoprotective 0.7 ppm X11714299 IC50=2.66 uM X11714299 ; Hepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Lipolytic PJB1(2):275 ; Molluscicide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide JBH ; Sedative JEO2:185

IRON Root 820 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

MAGNESIUM Root 1,650 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Root 70 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MARMESIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OSTHENOL-7-O-BETA-GENTIOBIOSIDE Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHELLOPTERIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Calcium-Antagonist PCA3:42 ; Lipolytic PJB1(2):2801

POTASSIUM Root 13,900 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PSORALEN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Antidepressant IC50=15-62 uM X11169165 ; Antileukodermic M11 ; Antimitotic IJP33:7 ; Antimutagenic PR4:216 ; Antipsoriac M11 ; Antispasmodic HH2 ; Antitubercular JBH ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antitumor-Promoter IC13=50 ug/ml CPB38:1086 ; Antiviral EMP5:199 ; Artemicide LC50=5.93 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Bacteriophagicide 50 ; Calcium-Antagonist PCA3:42 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Contraceptive FT54.1984 ; Cytotoxic ED50=2-30 ug/ml PR4(6):216 ; Cytotoxic (Breast) ED50=2.21 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Cytotoxic (Colon) ED50=26.84 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Cytotoxic (Lung) ED50=30.38 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Fungicide M11 ; Genotoxic M11 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Insecticide GMJ ; MAO-A-Inhibitor IC50=15 uM X11169165 ; MAO-B-Inhibitor IC50=62 uM X11169165 ; Mutagenic JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photocarcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Phototoxic DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin M11 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor ID50=10 mM TCY4:6

SCOPOLETIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM 438 ; Analgesic PM56(6):595 ; Anesthetic HDN ; Antiadrenergic HDN ; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm X11714299 IC50=65 uM X11714299 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihepatotoxic BIS ; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear PM56(6):504 ; Antileukotrienogenic PM56(6):595 ; Antimutagenic MAB ; Antioxidant PH2 ; Antiproliferant X11749777 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Apoptotic X11749777 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; CNS-Stimulant WBB ; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM BIOSIS'96 ; Hepatoprotective WIC ; Herbicide JBH ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:165 ; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor X11575966 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin PC29(6):1789 ; Phytohormonal JBH ; Uterosedative 411

SODIUM Root 425 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

XANTHOTOXIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Antiaflatoxin 0.54 ppm X11714299 IC50=2.5 uM X11714299 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antidermatitic M29 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antikeratotic M29 ; Antileucodermic JBH ; Antilymphomic 600 ug/kg +PUVA (extracorporeal) DUKE1992B ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml; Antimutagenic PR4:216 ; Antimycotic M29 ; Antipityriasic M29 ; Antipruritic M29 ; Antipsoriac M29 ; Antiscleromyxoedemic M29 ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor-Promoter IC24=50 ug/ml CPB38:1086 ; Antivitiligic 20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Artemicide LC50=5.93 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Bufocide JBH ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=551 uM gpg; Cancer-Preventive 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Cytotoxic ED50=7-29 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Cytotoxic (Breast) ED50=7.21 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Cytotoxic (Colon) ED50=29.46 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Cytotoxic (Lung) ED50=28.99 ug/ml PR4:216 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide IC100=2,000 ppm FT63(1):79 IC85=1,000 ppm FT63(1):79 ; Fungistat EC50=21.6 ug/ml NIG ; Hepatoprotective 0.5 ppm X11714299 IC50=2.5 uM X11714299 ; Herbicide 438 ; Hypertrichotic M29 ; Insecticide 382 ; Lipolytic PJB1(2):292 ; Molluscicide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG ; Piscicide JBH

XANTHOTOXOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Antihistaminic PEP ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antinicotinic 411 ; Cancer-Preventive PM1987:526 ; Cytotoxic JBH

ZINC Root 26 ppm; DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Bei Sha Shen

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

50: de Vries, D. J. and Blumberg, P. M., Thermoregulatory effects of resiniferatoxin in the mouse: comparison with capsaicin, Life Sciences, 44, 1989, 711-715.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:134: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 134.

BIOSIS'96: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPB38:1086: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP6:165: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 165

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT1990:503: Jim Duke's personal files

FT54.1984: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):79: Jim Duke's personal files

FT:1984: Jim Duke's personal files

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJP33:7: Pandeya, S.N. 1970. Biological Activity of Adamantyl Derivatives. The Indian Journal of Pharmacy, 33: 7.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.

JNP60:249: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

K27424: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED97: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PAP5:159: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(6):1789: Jim Duke's personal files

PC41:525: Jim Duke's personal files

PCA3:42: Jim Duke's personal files

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):262: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):275: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):2801: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):292: Jim Duke's personal files

PM1987:526: Gawron, A. and Glowniak, K. 1987. Cytostatic Activity of Coumarins in vitro. Planta Medica 1987: 526.

PM56(6):504: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):595: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(6):216: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:216: Saqib, Q. N., Hui, Y. H., Anderson, J. E. and McLaughlin, J. L. 1990. Bioactive Furanocoumarins from the Berries of Zanthoxylum americanum. Phytotherapy Research 4(6): 216-219.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TCY4:6: Hu, C. Q., Lee, K. S. 1992. Coumarins From the Roots of Seseli mairei and Inhibition of DNA Topoisomerase II Activity. Tianran Chanwu Yanjiu Yu Kaifa, 4: 6-10.

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X11169165: Jim Duke's personal files

X11575966: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X11749777: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files


ppm = parts per million
tr = trace