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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) -- Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree

Identifier

019033

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) -- Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree


Chemicals

1,4-DIMETHYL-2,5-DIISOPROPYLBENZENE Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10,11-(E)-6-OXO-DIHYDROATLANTONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10,11-(E)-DIHYDROATLANTONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10,11-(Z)-DIHYDROATLANTONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10-HEPTACOSANOL Leaf Wax: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10-NONACOSANOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

13-NONACOSANOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,5,8-TRIMETHYLDIHYDRONAPHTHALENE Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-ISOPROPYLPHENOL Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

24ALPHA-ETHYLLATHOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3'-O-METHYLMYRICETIN-3-RUTINOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4'-METHOXYPYRIDOXINE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-HYDROXYANACARDIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-HYDROXYGINKGOLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5'-METHOXYBILOBETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-(PENTADEC-8-ENYL)-2,4-DIHYDROXYBENZOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-HYDROXYKYNURENIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACACETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Allergenic JBH ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.06 ppm X11714299 IC50=7.25 uM X11714299 ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antihistaminic JBH ; Antimalarial IC50=4.2-12.6 ug/ml PR17:123 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Hepatoprotective IC50=2.06 ppm X11714299 IC50=7.25 uM X11714299 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Plasmodicide IC50=4.2-12.6 ug/ml PR17:123 ; Protisticide PR17:123 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223

ACENAPTHENE Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B

AFZELIN Pollen Or Spore: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=2.8 mM K25469

ALANINE Seed 2,400 - 5,352 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALPHA-HEXENAL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-IONONE Wood: DUKE1992A

Allergenic DPA:205 ; P450-1A-Inducer X12009035 ; P450-2B-Inducer X12009035 ; Perfume ZEB ; Tremorigenic ZEB

ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID Seed 210 - 468 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Antiaggregant FIH ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=42 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; Antimetastatic FIH ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive FIH ; Immunostimulant 0.12 ml/man/day FIH ; Lymphocytogenic 0.5 ug/ml FIH ; Propecic X10830511 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 39.5 g/day/hmn ARS:451 ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ALPHA-SESAMIN Wood 5,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AMENTOFLAVONE Leaf: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC60-90=333 ug/ml LAB54 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC25=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antibradykinic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic >3/4 indomethacin FT67:257 ; AntiHIV IC50=119 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 IC97=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory >3/4 indomethacin; Antileukemic IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC10.6=62.5 ug/ml; Antiperoxidant IC50=38 uM PM57:A110 ; Antiulcer PMP24:102 ; Antiviral IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor 5-10 x papaverine AFR27:180 IC50=22 uM BCP35:257 ; Fungicide PMP24:105 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor JBH

ANACARDIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiacne X11368634 ; Antibacterial 411 ; Antiprostaglandin JBH ; Antiseptic X11368634 ; Antithrombotic CAN ; Antitumor; Aphicide? ABS2 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Fungicide 411 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor X11368634 ; Molluscicide <10 ppm DUKE1992B ; Nematicide DUKE1992B ; Pesticide PC29:1815 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor X11368634 ; Protisticide 411 ; Schistosomicide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor X11368634

APIGENIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; AntiADD LIB ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.57 ppm X11714299 IC50=9.52 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antiangiogenic 4 uM; Antiarrhythmic PT4:118 ; Antibacterial 452 ; Anticancer (Lung) X15947208 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antiherpetic 20-54 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=10-35 uM; AntiHIV IC50=143 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 IC72=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory = indomethacin IC~65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM BO2 ; Antimelanomic 1-50 uM; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.55 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 1.5 x Vit. E IC28.5=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiproliferant 1-50 uM IC50=155 uM JE91:65.2004 ; Antispasmodic EC50=1-5 uM; Antistress 10 mg/kg; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (Breast) BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Skin) MSC'96 ; Antiviral 20-54 ug/ml; Anxiolytic 10 mg/kg; Apoptotic 12-60 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC65=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist? BBA1115:69 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic FTS:1986 ; CNS-Depressant JNP67:359 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM IC50=<15 uM X10506109 IC>65=1,000 uM HHM7:7 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 IC50=9.5 uM JE91:65.2004 IC88=10 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC40=40 uM BO2 MIC=30 uM BO2 ; Diuretic JBH ; DNA-Protective X11752233 ; Estrogenic 16% genistein BO2 EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=1 uM X10923837 ; HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor X15947208 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=50-250 uM BO2 ; Hypotensive JBH ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X12909272 ; MAO-Inhibitor PH2 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Myorelaxant JBH ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15322261 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Nodulation-Signal JBH ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; P21-Inducer 10-70 uM BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PKC-Inhibitor IC50=10 uM MSC'96 ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Progestational X10989984 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=10-40 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 20 uM CLE120:213 ; Radioprotective PH2 ; Sedative 30-100 mg/kg PM61:213 ; Sunscreen MSC'96 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.27 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 50 ug/ml JB118:312 IC28=18 uM BO2 IC45=180 uM BO2 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 0.36 uM PM69:1125

ARABINOSE Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGININE Seed 4,200 - 9,366 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ASCORBIC-ACID Seed 150 - 545 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Seed 14,000 - 38,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

ASPARTIC-ACID Seed 5,430 - 12,109 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

BETA-CAROTENE Seed 1 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-EUDESMOL Wood: DUKE1992A

Antianoxic ED60=300 orl mus CPB38:2034 ; AntiEBV JAF44:1647 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.09 uM/ml JAF44:1647 ; Antipeptic CPB34:3854.1986 ; Antisalmonella >0.18 uM/ml JAF44:1647 ; Antitumor-Promoter? JAF44:1647 ; Antiulcer; Calcium-Antagonist 40 uM mus M26414 ; CNS-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective; Neurogenic X12023507 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative PH2

BETA-IONONE Wood: DUKE1992A

Allergenic CD33:333 ; Antibacterial MIC=200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic MIC=100 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=140 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Fungicide; Hypocholesterolemic JAF43:2144 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

BETULAPRENOLS Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BILOBALIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiaging 10 mg/kg orl gbl (50-100 ng/ml) FT69:195 ; Antialcoholic 50-100 ng/ml FT69:195 ; Antibacterial CRC ; Anticonvulsant 30 mg/kg/day/orl mus FT69:195 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihypoxic QRN94:230 ; Antiischemic 5-20 mg/kg scu mus; Antioxidant 0.15 ug/ml FT69:195 IC28= 62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiradicular 0.15 ug/ml FT69:195 ; Cardioprotective FT69:195 ; Neuroprotective 5 mg/kg scu mus QRN94:229 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BILOBANONE Wood 20,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BILOBETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

AntiEBV JNP60(9):884 ; Antioxidant IC34.3= 62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiviral JNP60(9):884

BILOBOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic JBH ; Antithrombotic CAN ; Antitumor JBH ; Dermatitigenic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BUTYRIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anticancer WER ; Antitumor WER ; Apoptotic BOI ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Nematistat 880 ug/ml NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CALCIUM Seed 20 - 109 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CALCIUM-OXALATE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Emetic PJB1(1):169 ; Inflammatory PJB1(1):169 ; Laxative PJB1(1):169 ; Lithogenic PJB1(1):169

CAPROIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Irritant M&R503

CAPRYLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CARBOHYDRATES Seed 381,000 - 838,400 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARDANOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antithrombotic CAN ; Molluscicide ED=80->100 DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CARDOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antifilarial IJP52:271 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC28-98=10 uM DFN:162 ; Molluscicide ED=7-15 ppm DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CERYL-ALCOHOL Twig: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

COPPER Seed 3 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CYSTEINE Seed: DUKE1992A

AntiAddisonian DUKE1992B ; Antibiotic JBH ; Anticataract PAM ; Anticytotoxic PM56(2):190 ; Antiophthalmic MAR ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Detoxicant M11 ; Glutathionergic AIL ; Ophthalmic-Antialkali JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CYSTINE Seed 230 - 513 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

D-CATECHIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Anticoagulant DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Vasoconstrictor AYL

D-GALLOCATECHIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-GLUCARIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DNA Flower 32,700 - 35,700 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DOCOSANOL Pollen Or Spore: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ELEMOL Wood: DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=34 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiulcer X10823671

EO Wood 50,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Seed 16,000 - 38,020 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Seed 5,000 - 13,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FORMIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X10826162 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisyncopic DUKE1992B ; Astringent M11 ; Corrosive ARC ; Counterirritant M11 ; FLavor FEMA 500-2,500 ARC ; Fungistat JBH ; Fungitoxic JBH ; Irritant M&R670 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Preservative ARC ; Toxic JBH

FRUCTOSE Seed: DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

GADOLEIC-ACID Seed 100 - 223 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GALACTOSE Wood: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Analeptic DUKE1992B ; Anticephalagic DUKE1992B ; Anticerebrotic JBH ; Antichoreic 1-32 g/man/day M29 ; Anticonvulsant 4,120 mg/kg ipr mus BBE ; Antihypertensive 1,000-4,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiinsomnic DUKE1992B ; Antilethargic DUKE1992B ; Antistress SHT76 ; Antitinnitic DUKE1992B ; Anxiolytic SHT76 ; Cardiovascular 208 ivn dog BBE ; CNS-Inhibitor 0.1 mg/kg ivn cat BBE 100 mg/kg ivn dog BBE 2,500 mg/kg scu mus BBE ; Diuretic 1,500-4,000 mg/man/day IJO13:168 ; Hypotensive 1,000-4,000 mg/day DUKE1992B ; Neuroinhibitor OHAI13:165 ; Neurotoxic to birds JBH ; Neurotransmitter; Sedative HG40:12 ; Tranquilizer WER

GAMMA-EUDESMOL Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINKGETIN Fruit: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antibradykinic JNP60(9):884 ; Antibronchitic KCH ; Antiedemic >1/3 indomethacin FT67:257 ; Antihistaminic KCH ; AntiHSV-1 JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory FT67:257 ; Antioxidant IC19=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antispasmodic JNP60(9):884 ; Antiviral JNP60(9):884 ; Bronchodilator KCH ; Vasodilator JNP60(9):884

GINKGOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINKGOLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial CCO ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):175 ; Antiseptic PJB1(1):175 ; Antitubercular DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PJB1(1):175 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vesicant M&R317

GINKGOLIDE-A Root Bark: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant PJB1(1):175 ; Antiasthmatic PJB1(1):175 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antiischemic 50-100 mg/kg mus QRN'94:230 ; Antinephrotoxic CAN ; Antioxidant 0.05 ug/ml FT69:195 IC29=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Bronchodilator PJB1(1):175 ; Neuroprotective 50-100 mg/kg mus QRN'94:228 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GINKGOLIDE-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINKGOLIDE-B Root Bark: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant IC50=0.6-0.8; Antiallergic 411 ; Antianaphylactic 411 ; Antiarrhythmic HG24:21 ; Antiasthmatic 411 ; Antiischemic 50-100 mg/kg mus QRN'94:230 ; Antilipoperoxidant CAN ; Antioxidant 0.05 ug/ml FT69:195 IC37=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiulcer CAN ; Neuroprotective 50-100 mg/kg mus QRN'94:228 ; PAF-Inhibitor 411

GINKGOLIDE-C Root Bark: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant PJB1(1):175 ; Antiasthmatic PJB1(1):175 ; Antioxidant IC26=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Bronchodilator PJB1(1):175

GINKGOLIDE-M Root Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINNOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial CCO ; Antitubercular DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GINNON Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOMANNAN Wood: DUKE1992A

Anorectic? M29 ; Antidiabetic LRN-JUL86 ; Hypocholesterolemic LRN-JUL86

GLUCOSE Wood: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUTAMIC-ACID Seed 8,360 - 18,643 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLYCINE Seed 2,320 - 5,174 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

HEXACOSANOL-1 Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HISTIDINE Seed 1,020 - 2,275 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

HOMOSERINE Seed: DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41

HYDROGINKGOLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IPURANOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IRON Seed 10 - 26 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOGINKGETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOLEUCINE Seed 2,090 - 4,661 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

ISORHAMNETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial PMPP37:281 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiinflammatory 411 ; Antioxidant 411 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; MAO-Inhibitor PMID10813558 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer FCT36:623 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

KAEMPFEROL Leaf: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM JBC8:211 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.73 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic RWG122 ; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat PMP23:193 ; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg DUKE1992B 200 mg/kg ipr rat DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilymphocytic JBH ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=1.2 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC50=40 uM PC27:972 ; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:774 ; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM X10673981 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic ZUL ; Choleretic LAF ; Copper-Chelator X10976523 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX:50 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic JAF50:850 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=0.56 uM X10923837 ; Fungicide 20 ug/ml FNF ; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm X11714299 IC50=5.46 uM X11714299 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml JNP54:142 ; Hypotensive FT1990:508 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic; Natriuretic BJP3:10 ; Neuroprotective X10813558 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 ; PAF-Inhibitor FT67:548 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide PR13:102 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

KAEMPFEROL-3-0-RUTINOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-O-ALPHA(6'''-P-COUMAROYL-GLUCOSYL-BETA-1,4-RHAMNOSIDE) Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-RHAMNOGLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Purgative AFS27:173

L-EPICATECHIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-EPIGALLOCATECHIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Seed 3,160 - 7,047 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 5,780 - 12,889 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LUTEOLIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm FT64:131 IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic X11216484 ; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic X11216484 ; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF48:235 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticataract EC=3 ppm FT64:131 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin WIC ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic AJC31:37 ; Antimelanomic AJC31:37 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio EMP5:197 ; Antiproliferant X12224631 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM BO2 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Apoptotic 12-50 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X11216484 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM BO2 ; Diuretic PT5:1986 ; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective FT66:400 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAC9:158 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Myorelaxant AYL-84 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220 ; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml CPB38:1772

LYSINE Seed 2,060 - 4,594 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Seed 270 - 602 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Seed 1 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MANNAN Leaf 34,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MANNOSE Wood: DUKE1992A

Antiadhesive; Anticystitic 0.25-1 tsp 3-4 x/day orl man A&C3:269 ; AntiUTI PIL

METHIONINE Seed 550 - 1,226 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

MYRISTIC-ACID Seed 60 - 133 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

NIACIN Seed 28 - 134 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NONACOSANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic 250 ug/mL JAF37:1364.1989 ; Antiviral PS75:161

OCTACOSANOL-1 Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OLEIC-ACID Seed 5,120 - 11,418 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

P-COUMARIC-ACID Pollen Or Spore: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-CYMENE Wood: DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-TOLYL-PROPYLENE Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Seed 2,880 - 6,422 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Seed 790 - 1,761 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Seed 1 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PENTOSANS Leaf 55,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 16,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENYLALANINE Seed 1,710 - 3,813 ppm DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHOSPHORUS Seed 1,240 - 3,268 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PINITOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic PMP23:59 ; Antifeedant DUKE1992B ; Expectorant FEA DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

POPULNIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Seed 5,100 - 11,394 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROCYANIDIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic IJO16:204 ; Antibacterial PM56(6):577 ; Antibiotic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic APP16:50 ; Antiexudative APP16:50 ; AntiHIV DUKE1992B ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; Capillariprotective APP16:50 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IJO16:204 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=>40 CPB38:1225

PRODELPHINIDIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antibiotic DUKE1992B

PROLINE Seed 3,470 - 7,738 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPIONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-36,000 ARC ; Fungicide 2,500-36,000; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient ZEB

PROTEIN Seed 43,200 - 131,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 IC50=0.344 uM ZZZ18:623 IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic JBH ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM X11714299 IC50=7.5 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM JAF45:4505 IC50=55 uM EMP5:333 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM JIM127:546 ; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antianaphylactic PR4(5):201 ; Antiangiogenic EJP459:255 ; Antiarthritic COX ; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic X11020457 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM MED ; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract PM56(3):258 ; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day PAM ; Anticomplementary JNP65:1457 ; AntiCrohn's PAM ; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks X11272677 ; Antidepressant JMF6:391 ; Antidermatitic PAM ; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antiencephalitic EMP5:199 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrosarcomic JAF45:4505 ; Antiflu V&D ; Antigastric RR21:85 ; Antigonadotropic JBH ; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):171 ; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antihydrophobic V&D ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg FT5:1990 ; Antileishmanic IC50=64 JNP65:1457 ; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM BO2 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml MPT ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antimyocarditic EMP5:199 ; Antinitrosaminic PAL:339 ; Antinociceptive PR14:40 ; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E BO2 ED50=2.3 uM PR14:93 IC47=10 uM JMF5:1 IC96=300 ppm PCF ; Antipancreatitic JNU ; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antipermeability DUKE1992B ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64 JNP65:1457 ; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn PAM ; Antipodriac; Antipolio PAM ; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid PCF:51 ; Antiprostatitic JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithrombic PAL:339 ; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13 JNP65:1457 ; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF45:4505 ; Antitumor (Lung) X10918203 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter PAM ; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml JNP55:1732 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor NIG ; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml QRNM(SUMMER):91 ; Bradycardiac KCH ; Calmodulin-Antagonist PAM ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus NIG ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; COMT-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM BO2 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml PM56(6):677 IC82=100 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Differentiator 5.5 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic 10% genistein B02 ; Fungicide X10857921 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostat KCH ; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective FT67:200 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml JNP53(5):1239 ; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat JE27:243 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic X10404425 ; Insulinogenic PAM ; Juvabional 438 ; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM JAF38:688 IC50=0.1-5 uM DFN:154 ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer DUKE1992B ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) PR14:93 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Mutagenic HG22:27 ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15180920 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM X15832817 IC>50=125 uM JAF50:850 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM FNF ; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM FNF ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12144868 ; Phospholipase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; Plasmodicide HDN ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml PR11:281 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor PCF:14 ; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM BO2 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM CLE120:213 ; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM BO2 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM BO2 ; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr 505 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor X16737615 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM PM69:1125 IC50=10.6 ug/ml X12591129 IC50=>0.4 ug/ml CPB38:1772

QUERCETIN-3-0-RUTINOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-O-ALPHA(6'''-P-COUMAROYL-GLUCOSYL-BETA-1,4-RHAMNOSIDE) Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-RHAMNOGLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory FT62:372 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic DUKE1992B

QUINIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

RAFFINOSE Flower 40,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Wood 10,000 - 20,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Flatugenic PFH46:77

RIBOFLAVIN Seed 1 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SCIADOPITYSIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiedemic 1/3 indomethacin FT67:257 ; Antiinflammatory FT67:257 ; Antioxidant IC37=0.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150

SEQUOYITOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SERINE Seed 2,900 - 6,467 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525

SHIKIMIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Analgesic MEDSCAPE'89 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticonvulsant HDN ; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiradicular JAF47:397 ; Antispasmodic GMJ ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Carcinogenic M11 ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:508 ; Mutagenic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SITOSTEROL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SODIUM Seed 70 - 160 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

SPINASTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

STARCH Seed 407,400 - 680,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Absorbent M29 ; Antidote (Iodine) JBH ; Antinesidioblastosic M29 ; Emollient M29 ; Poultice M29

STEARIC-ACID Seed 160 - 357 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

STIGMASTEROL Pollen Or Spore: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

SUCCINIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Additive FEMA 200-2,000 ARC ; Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Dye M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SUCROSE Seed 3,600 ppm; DUKE1992A Wood 10,000 - 20,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Aggregant PAM ; Antihiccup 1 tsp M29 ; Antiophthalmic M29 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Atherogenic PAM ; Collyrium JBH ; Demulcent JBH ; Flatugenic PFH46:77 ; Hypercholesterolemic PAM ; Preservative M11 ; Sweetener 1 x sucrose M11 ; Triglycerigenic PAM ; Uricogenic PAM ; Vulnerary M29

TANNIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

THIAMIN Seed 2 - 5 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THREONINE Seed 2,680 - 5,976 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

THYMOL Wood: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X10826162 ; Allergenic M&R366 ; Analgesic MAD ; Ancylostomicide MAD ; Anesthetic MAD ; Ankylostomacide MAD ; Anthelmintic 411 ; Antiacne NIG ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.75 TRA42:511 ; Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial MIC=50-400 ug/ml; Antibronchitic MAD ; Anticariogenic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Anticholinesterase LGR ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiherpetic MAR ; Antiinflammatory (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Antilepric MAD ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant 100 ppm MAR ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml 451 ; Antiradicular EC=60 JEO5:153 ; Antirheumatic 411 ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antiseptic 20 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antitrichinosic 5% MAD ; Antitussive IWU ; Ataxigenic ZEB ; Candidicide 100 ug/ml (>Nystatin) JE58:143 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Counterirritant NIG ; Culicide LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Dentifrice ARC ; Deodorant MAR ; Dermatitigenic M&R366 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Enterotoxic WIC ; Expectorant LAF ; FLavor FEMA 2-100 ARC ; Fungicide M11 ; Gastroirritant M29 ; Gram(+)icide MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Gram(-)icide MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Insecticide 0.22 uM/fly JAF50:4576 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Insectifuge X10701181 ; Irritant LAF ; Larvicide 10 ppm 454 58 ppm X10701181 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Molluscicide PR13:649 ; Myorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Nematicide MLC=0.1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Sprout-Inhibitor PER.COM.SFV ; Tracheorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=25 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Urinary-Antiseptic 411 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vermicide MAD

TRANS-LINALOL-OXIDE Wood: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRICETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRYPTOPHAN Seed 710 - 1,583 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

TYROSINE Seed 610 - 1,360 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

UROSHIOLS Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VALERIANIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic DUKE1992B

VALINE Seed 2,830 - 6,311 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

WAX Leaf 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

XYLOSE Wood: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic; Diagnostic MAR ; Dye M11

Z,Z,4,4'-(1,4-PENTADIEN-1,5-DIYL)DIPHENOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Seed 3 - 8 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Ginkgo biloba

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

451: Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Takiguchi, T., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I., Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria, Bull Tokyo Dent. Coll., 31 (1), 1990, 17-21

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

454: Berenbaum, M. R., The natives knew, Chemtech, (May), 1990, 275-279.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

A&C3:269: Jim Duke's personal files

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ABS2: Chau (1985) in Purseglove et al. Acta Botanica Sinica, 2.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:180: Jim Duke's personal files

AFS27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AIL: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

APP16:50: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARS:451: Ferretti, A., Flanagan, V. P. 1996. Antithromboxane Activity of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid: A Pilot Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 54(6): 451-455. ARS, USDA.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

AYL-84: Jim Duke's personal files

B02: Jim Duke's personal files

BBA1115:69: Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1115: 69, 1991.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BBR216:198: Jim Duke's personal files

BCP35:257: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CD33:333: Jim Duke's personal files

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

COX:50: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB34:3854.1986: Chem & Pharm. Bull., 34: 3854, 1986.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2034: Yamahara, J., Matsuda, H., Naitoh, Y., Fujimura, H., and Tamai, Y. 1990. Antianoxic Action and Active Constituents of Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(7): 2033-2034, 1990.

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB38:774: Yasukawa, K., Takido, M., Takeuchi, M., Sato, Y., Nitta, K., and Nakagawa, S. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Flavonol Glycosides on 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-Induced Tumor Promotion. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(3): 774-776, 1990.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:154: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:161: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:162: Jim Duke's personal files

DPA:205: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP459:255: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FCT36:623: Yannai, S., Day, A. J., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1998. Characterization of Flavonoids as Monofunctional or Bifunctional Inducers of Quinone Reductase in Murine Hepatoma Cell Lines. Food Chem Toxicol, 36(8): 623-630.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIH: Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT1990:508: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT62:372: Pathak, D., Pathak, K., Singla*, A.K. 1991. Flavonoids as medicinal agents - Recent advances. Fitoterapia 62(5): 62, 1991.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:131: Shin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.

FT66:400: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:200: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:257: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:548: Jim Duke's personal files

FT69:195: Jim Duke's personal files

FTS:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG22:27: Jim Duke's personal files

HG24:21: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO13:168: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:204: Jim Duke's personal files

IJP52:271: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAC9:158: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF37:1364.1989: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF44:1647: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3106: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JB118:312: Azuma, Y., Onishi, Y., Sato, Y., Kizaki, H. 1995. Effects of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors With Different Modes of Action on Topoisomerase Activity and Death of IL-2-Dependent CTLL-2-Cells. J Biochemistry, 118: 312-318.

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE32:175: Jim Duke's personal files

JE58:143: Jim Duke's personal files

JE91:65.2004: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO5:153: Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.

JIM127:546: Jim Duke's personal files.

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:391: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(5):1239: Nakane, H., Fukushima, M., and Ono*, K. Differential Inhibition Of Reverse Transcriptase And Various DNA Polymerases By Digallic Acid And Its Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5): 1234-1240, 1990.

JNP54:142: Garcia, J., Morin,* C., Nyasse, B., Sondengam, B-L., Tchouankeu, J-C., and Tsamo, E. Complete Structural Assignments Of An Ergosterol Derivative From Entandrophragma utile. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 136-142, 1991.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP58:217: Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1457: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:359: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K25469: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB54: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LGR: L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.

LIB: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JUL86: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R366: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R670: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M26414: Jim Duke's personal files

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MEDSCAPE'89: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

OHAI13:165: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:339: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29:1815: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:14: Naim, M., Zehavi, U., Nagy, S., and Rouseff, R.L. Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Off-Flavor Precursors in Citrus Fruits and Their Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.14.

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PER.COM.SFV: Duke, J.A.. Personal Communication.

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):175: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(2):171: Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., and Dorfman, P. 1989. Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Injury in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes: A Model for Studying Anti-Hepatotoxic Crude Drugs. Planta Medica 56(2): 171-173, 1990.

PM56(2):190: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):577: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):677: Matsukawa, Y., et al. The Effect of Quercetin and Other Flavonoids on Cell Cycle Progresssion and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 56(6): 677, 1990.

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:213: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID10813558: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:193: Kumar, P., Dixit*, V.P., and Khanna, P. Antifertility Studies of Kaempferol: Isolation and Identification from Tissue Culture of some Medicinally Important Plant Species. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 23: 193-201, 1989.

PMP23:59: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:102: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:105: Jim Duke's personal files

PMPP37:281: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PR11:281: Ibewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.

PR13:102: Meckes, M., Calzada, F., Tapia-Contreras, A., Cedillo-Rivera, R. 1999. Antiprotozoal Properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13(2): 102-105.

PR13:649: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:40: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:93: Seidel, V., Verholle, M., Malard, Y., Tillequin, F., Fruchart, J-C., Duriez, P., Bailleul, F., Teissier, E. 2000. Phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra L. Inhibit in vitro LDL Peroxidation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 93-98.

PR17:123: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(5):201: Meli, R., Autore, G., Di Carlo, G., Capasso, F. Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 201, 1990.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

PT4:118: Jim Duke's personal files

PT5:1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

QRN'94:228: Jim Duke's personal files

QRN'94:230: Jim Duke's personal files

QRN94:229: Jim Duke's personal files

QRN94:230: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM(SUMMER):91: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RR21:85: Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.

RWG122: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT76: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TRA42:511: Tramil, 42: 511.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10404425: Jim Duke's personal files

X10506109: Jim Duke's personal files

X10673981: Jim Duke's personal files

X10701181: Jim Duke's personal files

X10723772: Jim Duke's personal files

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X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X18095647: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X6654625: Jim Duke's personal files

X9025787: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZUL: Hutchings, A, Scott, AH, Lewis, G, and Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

ZZZ18:623: Mao, X. M., Zhang, J. Q. 1993. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi , 18(10): 623-624.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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