Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Ferula assa-foetida L. (Apiaceae) -- Asafetida, Asafetida (Sp.), Asafoetida, Assa-foetida, Devil's Dung, Stinkasant (Ger.)

Identifier

019909

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Ferula assa-foetida L. (Apiaceae) -- Asafetida, Asafetida (Sp.), Asafoetida, Assa-foetida, Devil's Dung, Stinkasant (Ger.)


Chemicals

2-BUTYLMETHYL-DISULFIDE Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-BUTYLMETHYL-TETRASULFIDE Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-BUTYLMETHYL-TRISULFIDE Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLYLPROPYL-SULFIDE Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PINENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ASARESINOTANNOL Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASH Plant 15,000 - 100,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BASSORIN Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-PINENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BUTYLPROPENYL-DISULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BYAKANGELICOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CADINENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Antifeedant 382 ; FLavor FEMA 400-4,000 ARC ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

DIALLYL-SULFIDE Gum: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MIC=>2,500 ug/ml LAW ; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Stomach) PAL:179 ; Antimutagenic ABS ; Antioxidant; Antiseptic LAW ; Antistaphylococcic LAW ; Antitumor HG20:24 ; Antitumor (Colon) >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Antitumor (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg LAW ; Antitumor (Intestine) LAW ; Antitumor (Liver) LAW ; Antitumor (Lung) LAW ; Antitumor (Stomach) LAW ; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Cancer-Preventive (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg ABS ; Cytochrome-P450-2E1-Inhibitor PAL:178 ; FLavor FEMA 1-50 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic IC37-72=146 ug/ml ATH94:79 ; Lipolytic 12 mg/kg LAW ; Occuloirritant M&R55 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective LAW ; Triglycerolytic LAW

EO Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FARNESFEROL Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Essential Oil 13,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FOETIDIN Gum: DUKE1992A

Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B

GALACTOSE Gum: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GLUCOSE Gum: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUCURONIC-ACID Gum: DUKE1992A

Antidote (Camphor) PJB1(3):241 ; Antidote (Morphine) PJB1(3):241 ; Antihepatotoxic PJB1(3):241 ; Detoxicant M11

GUM Plant 250,000 ppm; AYL

No activity reported.

ISOPIMPINELLIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiappetant DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiinflammatory 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antilipogenic PJB1(2):276 ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antitubercular; Calcium-Antagonist PCA3:42 ; Cancer-Preventive PM1987:526 ; Diuretic 125 mg/kg DUKE1992B ; Fungicide JBH ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Molluscicide DUKE1992B ; Mutagenic FT,1984 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide JBH

KAMOLONOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-ARABINOSE Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OXYDASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPENYL-SULFIDE Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RESIN Plant 400,000 - 640,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RHAMNOSE Gum: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SEC-BUTYL-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE Resin, Exudate, Sap 4,500 - 7,650 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

UMBELLIFERONE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=4.8 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC94=2 mM 438 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antiedemic HDN ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory RWG141 ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic FT63(5):387 ; Cancer-Preventive PM1987:526 ; Candidicide FT63(5):387 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide 411 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photoactive FT63(5):387 ; Sunscreen M11 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor MAB

VALERIC-ACID Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Antihysteric MAR ; Antiinsomniac 1.2-2.4 DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:86 ; FLavor FEMA 1-8 ARC ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Myorelaxant JE26:86 ; Perfumery M11 ; Sedative DUKE1992B ; Tranquilizer DUKE1992B

VANILLIN Plant 600 ppm; AYL CCO

Allelochemic IC50=4.26 mM 438 ; Allergenic M&R416 ; Antianemic X15180869 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antidrepanocytic X15180869 ; Antiescherichic 10-100 mmol/l X15186447 ; Antilactobacillic X15186447 ; Antilisteria X14968973 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant =ascorbic acid; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antisickling; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral EMP5:194 ; Antiyeast 8-30 mM X14968976 ; Bacteristat 10-40 mmol/l X15186447 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide 8-20 mM X14968976 ; Choleretic RIN ; FLavor FEMA 50-20,000 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Insectifuge? MAR ; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide DUKE1992B

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Asafoetida

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABS: Abstract (See species file)

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ATH94:79: Atherogenesis 94:79-85. 1992.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FT,1984: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:503: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(5):387: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG20:24: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR9(4):182: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LAW: LAWSON in Koch, H. P. and Lawson, L. D., eds. 1996. Garlic- The Science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 329 pp.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

M&R416: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R55: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:178: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:179: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PCA3:42: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):276: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):241: Jim Duke's personal files

PM1987:526: Gawron, A. and Glowniak, K. 1987. Cytostatic Activity of Coumarins in vitro. Planta Medica 1987: 526.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

X10408241: Jim Duke's personal files

X14968973: Jim Duke's personal files

X14968976: Jim Duke's personal files

X15180869: Jim Duke's personal files

X15186447: Jim Duke's personal files

X16248573: Jim Duke's personal files

X7199340: Jim Duke's personal files

X9242356: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace