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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) -- Indian Saffron, Turmeric

Identifier

019908

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) -- Indian Saffron, Turmeric


Chemicals

1,8-CINEOLE Rhizome 30 - 720 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

2-BORNANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-HYDROXY-METHYL-ANTHRAQUINONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antileukemic ED50=2.6 ug/ml ACM:361 ; Cytotoxic JBH

4-HYDROXY-CINNAMOYL-(FERULOYL)-METHANE Rhizome 180 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-ATLANTONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PINENE Essential Oil 5,300 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

AR-TURMERONE Rhizome 5,800 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran IC50=3.2-5.6 ug/ml; Anticancer; Antihemorrhagic; Antiinflammatory; Antilymphocytic BIS ; AntiNKC X1440627 ; Antiophidic; Antiproliferant X1440627 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=5.6 ug/ml X12086400 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=3.2 ug/ml X12086400 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ARABINOSE Rhizome 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Rhizome 293 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Rhizome 9,000 - 148,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AZULENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic IWU ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory PEP ; Antipyretic HG20:40 ; Antiseptic 6-500 VAL ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antiulcer ED50=150 (orl) DUKE1992B ; Hepatoregenerative CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BETA-CAROTENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-PINENE Essential Oil 2,700 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-SESQUIPHELLANDRENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antirhinoviral IC50=0.44 uM JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC40=50 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Expectorant PJB1(3):248 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Stomachic X1469612

BIS-(PARA-HYDROXY-CINNAMOYL)-METHANE Rhizome 1,360 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BIS-DESMETHOXYCURCUMIN Rhizome 67 - 27,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 0.5-10 ug/ml JNP65:1227 ; Antiamyloid-Beta JNP65:1227 ; Antiangiogenic DUKE1992B ; Anticholeretic HG17 ; Antiinflammatory PCF

BISABOLENE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BORNEOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

BORON Root 1 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

CAFFEIC-ACID Rhizome 5 ppm; DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Rhizome 270 - 2,898 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAPRYLIC-ACID Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CARBOHYDRATES Rhizome 79,000 - 829,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARYOPHYLLENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CHROMIUM Rhizome 6 ppm; DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CINEOLE Essential Oil 29,200 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CINNAMIC-ACID Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antiinflammatory PMP25:55 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 4-40 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide DUKE1992B ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=700 uM; Vermifuge JE26:81

COBALT Rhizome 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Rhizome 6 - 17 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CUMINYL-ALCOHOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CURCUMENE Essential Oil 121,700 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CURCUMENOL Essential Oil 21,300 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anticancer KCH ; Antitumor KCH ; Emetic KCH

CURCUMIN Rhizome 9 - 38,888 ppm DUKE1992A

12-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor HG37:18 ; 5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X11380153 ; 5-HETE-Inhibitor IC50=3-10 uM BO2 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor AAA31:329 ; 8-HETE-Inhibitor IC40=3 uM BO2 ; Antiadenomacarcinogenic 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat FT68:483 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=81 uM PAL:326 ; Antiaggregant PJB1(1):172 ; Antialzheimeran 0.5-10 ug/ml JNP65:1227 ; Antiamyloid-Beta JNP65:1227 ; Antiangiogenic; Antiarachidonate PAL:326 ; Antiarthritic PAM ; Antiasthmatic HG37:18 ; Antiatherosclerotic 0.4-20 mg/kg/day FT68:483 ; Antibacterial NIG ; Antibronchitic HG37:18 ; Anticancer X16712454 ; Anticancer (Breast); Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Duodenum) PAL:326 ; Anticancer (Mammary) 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Anticancer (Skin); Anticancer (Stomach) X16712454 ; Anticarcinogenic X10780880 ; Anticataract 75 mg/kg orl rat FT68:483 ; Anticholecystosic PAM ; Anticolitic HG37:18 ; Anticollagenic BO2 ; AntiCrohn's HG37:18 ; AntiEBV IC50=5.4 uM NR54:S24 ; Antieczemic IWU ; Antiedemic ED50=100.2 mg/kg orl mus (cf 78 for cortisone) ED50=48 mg/kg orl rat (cf 45 for cortisone) ED50=48 mg/kg orl rat (cf 48 for phenylbutazone); Antieicosanoid BO2 ; Antihepatotic PFH44:87 ; AntiHIV IC50=40 uM BP49:1165 ; Antiinflammatory 1 uM HG37:18 1,200 mg/man/day; Antiintegrase 40-150 uM; Antiischemic PFH44:87 ; Antileishmanic IC50=7.8 ug/ml X10865470 ; Antileukemic FT68:483 ; Antileukotriene 170 mg/kg orl rat; Antilipoperoxidant X7714712 ; Antilithic 0.5% diet FT68:483 ; Antilymphomic 0.4 mg/ml IWU 4 ug/ml MAB ; Antimelanomic 200 nM/kg orl mus FT68:483 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosaminic PAL:326 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA PCF:125 IC50=500 uM PC27:974 ; Antipapillomic X8879271 ; Antiperoxidant PCF:347 ; Antiproliferant IC50=13 uM; Antiprostaglandin 8.8 uM PM184.1986 ; Antipsoriatic HG37:18 ; Antispasmodic MPI ; Antithrombotic FT68:483 ; Antithromboxane FT68:483 ; Antitumor X16712454 ; Antitumor (Colon) CLE64:117 ; Antitumor (Liver) 10 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC91=10 uM; Antiulcer orl rat FT68:483 ; Antiviral IC50=5.4 uM NR54:S24 ; Apoptotic 150-2,000 ppm (diet) orl rat 30-90 uM BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiodepressant MPI ; Chelator IC50=500 uM PC27:974 Iron PAL:326 ; Chemopreventive; Cholagogue DUKE1992B ; Choleretic HG24:37 ; COX-2-Inhibitor 10-20 uM; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:338 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 0.4-4 mg/ml IWU IC50=1 ug/ml FT68:483 IC50=25 uM BO2 ; Deodorant IWU ; Detoxicant PAL:326 ; DNA-Protective X7526190 ; Dye M11 ; Expectorant 100 uM PM69:523 ; Fibrinolytic FT68:483 ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Glutathionigenic 80 mg/kg igs rat PR13:571 ; Hepatoprotective 30 mg/kg/day FT68:483 30 ppm TOX107:39 ; Hypocholesterolemic 0.15% diet 7 wks FT68:483 ; Hypolipidemic FT68:483 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; IkappaB-alpha-Phosphorylation-Inhibitor X15252141 ; IKB-kinase-Inhibitor X16712454 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15129424 ; Immunostimulant 40 mg/kg/5 wk orl rat FT68:483 ; Lipase-Inducer JE50:167 ; Litholytic 0.5% diet FT68:483 ; Maltase-Promoter JE50:167 ; MDR-Inhibitor 1-55 uM X12570718 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 10 uM; Mucogenic 100 uM PM69:523 ; Nematicide X8221978 ; Neuroprotective 80 mg/kg igs rat PR13:571 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X12680238 ; NO-Scavenger X9120760 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ED=~150 mg/kg; P450-Inhibitor IC50=2-14 ug/ml; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor IC42=3 uM BO2 ; Phototoxic IWU ; Plasmodicide X10865470 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.2% diet rat CR55:259 ; Protease-Inhibitor IC50=11-250 uM DUKE1992B ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=15 uM BO2 IC69=15 uM BO2 ; Protein-Kinase-Inhibitor FT68:483 ; PTK-Inhibitor 5-100 uM BOI ; Pulmonoprotective 200 mg/kg/7 d FT68:483 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3.4 uM CAR19:1039 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1340 ; Sortase-A-Inhibitor IC50=13-14 ug/ml X16277395 ; Sucrase-Promoter JE50:167 ; TNF-Inhibitor X12680238 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor X9584408 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor X9584408 ; Ulcerogenic orl rat FT68:483 ; VEGF-Inhibitor

CURDIONE Essential Oil 11,900 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) MPT ; Antileukopenic KCH ; Antisarcomic ACM:435 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antitumor (Cervix) MPT ; AntiX-Radiation KCH

CURLONE Rhizome 120 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CURZERENONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CURZERENONE-C Essential Oil 20,400 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYCLO-ISOPRENEMYRCENE Rhizome 8,500 - 29,750 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Rhizome 30 - 720 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-CAMPHENE Rhizome 480 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-CAMPHOR Rhizome 30 - 1,500 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-SABINENE Rhizome 20 - 432 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEHYDROTURMERONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DESMETHOXYCURCUMIN Rhizome 500 - 11,100 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DI-P-COUMAROYL-METHANE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Cytotoxic CCO ; Hepatoprotective LAF

DICINNAMOYLMETHANE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

DIDESMETHOXYCURCUMIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIFERULOYL-METHANE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Cytotoxic CCO

DIHYDROCURCUMIN Rhizome 57 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Rhizome 3,000 - 72,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EUGENOL Essential Oil 2,100 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm; Allergenic M&R488 ; Analgesic M11 ; Anesthetic 200-400 PR4:93 ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM PR4:93 ; Antiarachidonate PJB1(2):269 ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL MBC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiedemic 100 PR4:95 ; Antiestrogenic X12495555 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosating PCF-I:200 ; Antioxidant 10 uM HHM7:7 IC65=30 ppm PCF:219 ; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM PM186:1986 IC50=9.2 mM POP:150 ; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l PMP22:233 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B 400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Antithromboxane LRN-JUL87 ; AntiTNF X10871845 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer FT71:S131 ; Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Apifuge 382 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg J14432 IC50=224 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR4:93 ; Carcinogenic? NIG ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM JNP65:1517 IC>97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 25 ug/ml PR4:93 ; Dermatitigenic M&R489 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; FLavor FEMA 10-500 ARC ; Fungicide PMP23:60 ; Hepatoprotective 100 ppm TOX107:39 ; Herbicide PMP23:60 ; Insecticide; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant; Juvabional 382 ; Larvicide JE26:72 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt GPH27:629 IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml NIG ; Trypsin-Enhancer LRN-DEC93 ; Ulcerogenic PR4:93 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vasodilator PR14:495 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

FAT Rhizome 18,000 - 153,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULOYL-P-COUMAROYL-METHANE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Cytotoxic CCO

FIBER Rhizome 9,000 - 84,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FRUCTOSE Rhizome 120,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

GAMMA-ATLANTONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Rhizome 280,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GUAIACOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial 8,000 ppm VAL ; Antidermatitic JBH ; Antieczemic JBH ; Antiesophagitic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antituberculic DUKE1992B ; Cardiodepressant ZEB ; Cardiotonic LRNP:JUL'96 ; Dermal ZEB ; Emetic ZEB ; Expectorant 0.3-0.6 ml/man MAR ; FLavor FEMA <1-1 ARC ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=57 uM FRBM26:193 ; Transdermal ZEB

IRON Rhizome 121 - 467 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOBORNEOL Rhizome Essent. Oil 200 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiherpetic 600 ppm X10517310 ; Antiviral X10517310 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Motor-Stimulant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative

L-ALPHA-CURCUMENE Rhizome 18,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-BETA-CURCUMENE Rhizome 18,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Essential Oil 2,300 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINALOL Essential Oil 1,600 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MANGANESE Rhizome 33 - 78 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MONODESMETHOXYCURCUMIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NIACIN Rhizome 5 - 62 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICKEL Rhizome 3.8 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

O-COUMARIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Fungicide PHZ46:156 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

P-COUMARIC-ACID Rhizome 345 ppm; DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-CYMENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-METHOXY-CINNAMIC-ACID Rhizome 360 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Hemolytic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic OMM ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

P-TOLYMETHYLCARBINOL Rhizome 500 - 1,750 ppm DUKE1992A

Cholagogue HG117

PHOSPHORUS Rhizome 640 - 6,307 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

POTASSIUM Rhizome 4,870 - 41,271 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROTEIN Rhizome 12,000 - 306,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Allergenic JAF49:5674 ; Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor X16500886 ; Antiarrhythmic ACM:407 ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial PR4(5):198 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antiischemic JBH ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic X10856425 ; Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Antimutagenic X9025787 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHT 10 x alpha-tocopherol JAF49:5674 2/3 quercetin; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 IC75=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antiseptic YAK122:487 ; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM PR4(2):73 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Mouth) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Skin) JAF49:5674 ; Antitussive ACM:200 ; Antiviral JAF45:1039 ; Apoptotic X10856425 ; Carcinogenic JAF49:5674 ; Cardioprotective X16407799 ; Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat JAF49:5674 ; Fungicide 500 ug/ml 438 ; Glutathione-Depleting JAF49:5674 ; Hepatotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Nephrotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic EMP1:124 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Secretogogue CAN ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Ubiquiot JBH

RESIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Rhizome 12 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SODIUM Rhizome 30 - 4,290 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

SYRINGIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC39=30 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperoxidant IC10-70=100-200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular EC50=5.5-8 ug/ml JAF50:5850 ; Ubiquiot JBH

TERPINENE Essential Oil 27,200 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TERPINEOL Essential Oil 500 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 10-100 ug/ml PM67:564 ; Anesthetic PM67:564 ; Antiallergenic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticancer JNU ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antiseptic M11 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Cholagogue DUKE1992B ; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; Expectorant DUKE1992B ; Insecticide X11997977 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Larvicide X11997977 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THIAMIN Rhizome 8 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TURMERONE Rhizome 1,800 - 43,200 ppm DUKE1992A

Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

UKONAN-A Rhizome 33 - 6,600 ppm DUKE1992A

Immunostimulant DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic 5 mg/kg ip PC29(4):1083 ; RES-Activator CPB38:1968

UKONAN-B Rhizome 47 ppm; DUKE1992A

Phagocytotic 5 mg/kg CPB38:484 ; RES-Activator CPB38:1968

UKONAN-C Rhizome 52 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

UKONAN-D Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VANILLIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM/l PHM1:145 ; Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antibacterial 1.5-15 mg/ml 452 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC21=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC15-65=100-200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antisickling PM56(6):681 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Ascaricide DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide X15712986 ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Laxative MPI ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ubiquiot JBH

WATER Rhizome 133,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Rhizome 22 ppm; DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

ZINGIBERENE Rhizome 750 - 18,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antirhinoviral MAB ; Antiulcer IC54=100 mg/kg; Carminative PJB1(2):292 ; Insecticide TOX ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Turmeric

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAA31:329: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:361: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:407: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 407.

ACM:435: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BP49:1165: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAR19:1039: Singletary, K., et al. 1998. Effect of the Beta-Diketones Diferoloylmethane (Curcumin) and Dibenzoylmethane on Rat Mammary DNA Adducts and Tumors Induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(A)anthracene. Carcinogenesis, 19(6): 1039-1043.

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CLE64:117: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1968: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CPB38:484: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CR55:259: Rao, C. V., Rivenson, A., Simi, B., Reddy, B. S. 1995. Chemoprevention of Colon Carcinogenesis by Dietary Curcumin, a Naturally Occurring Plant Phenolic Compound. Cancer Research, 55(2): 259-266.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FRBM26:193: Alanko, J., et al. 1999. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism by Phenols: Relation to their Structure and Antioxidant/Proooxidant Properties. Free Radical Biol Med, 26(1/2): 193-201.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68:483: Jim Duke's personal files

FT71:S131: Jim Duke's personal files

GPH27:629: Chen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.

HG117: Jim Duke's personal files

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:40: HerbalGram No. 20, page 40.

HG24:37: HerbalGram No. 24, page 37.

HG37:18: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

J14432: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1340: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:5674: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4567: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6953: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE50:167: Jim Duke's personal files

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP57:658: Denyer, C.V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D.M., Ellis, M.R., and Yound, D.A.B. Isolation of Antirhinoviral Sesquiterpenes From Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Natural Products, 57(5): 658-662, 1994.

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1227: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-DEC93: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-93.

LRN-JUL87: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jul-87.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRNP:JUL'96: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R488: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R489: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPI: =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp Note: (2 vols so far).

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S24: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

OMM: Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)

PAL:326: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:974: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(4):1083: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF-I:200: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:125: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:219: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:338: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:347: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PFH44:87: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM1:145: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):172: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):292: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):248: Jim Duke's personal files

PM184.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM186:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):681: Planta Medica, 56(6): 681, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM67:564: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:523: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP22:233: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:55: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:150: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:571: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:495: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(2):73: Ortiz de Urbina, J.J., Martin, M.L., Sevilla, M.A., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., and San Roman, L. Antispasmodic Activity on Rat Smooth Muscle of Polyphenol Compounds Caffeic and Protocathechic Acids. Phytotherapy Research 4(2): 73, 1990.

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PR4:93: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.

PR4:95: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 95.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TOX107:39: Jim Duke's personal files

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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YAK112:645: Yamahara, J., et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of... Yakugaku Zasshi 112: 645-655 (1992).

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Mon Oct 26 13:44:43 EDT 2015