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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cuminum cyminum L. (Apiaceae) -- Cumin

Identifier

019910

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cuminum cyminum L. (Apiaceae) -- Cumin


Chemicals

1,8-CINEOLE Fruit 40 - 138 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

ALDEHYDES Fruit 12,000 - 30,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-P-DIMETHYL-STYRENE Fruit 30 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Fruit 60 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial CWW ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Dermal JBH ; Emetic PJB1(1) ; FLavor FEMA 10-130 ARC ; Fungicide HH2 ; Insectiphile PEP ; Irritant JBH ; Laxative PJB1(1) ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ALPHA-PINENE Fruit 9 - 330 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINENE Fruit 27 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic PR14:623

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Fruit 30 - 275 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

ALPHA-THUJENE Fruit 24 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ANISALDEHYDE Fruit 837 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Fungicide PJB1(2):261 ; Insecticide CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.32 mM JAF47:4574 ID50=320 uM JAF46:1268 ID50=380-970 uM

APIGENIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

APIGENIN-7-GLUCURONOSYL-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 76 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Fruit 58,000 - 89,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BENZYL-CINNAMATE Fruit 1,341 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R416 ; FLavor FEMA 1-125 ARC ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery DUKE1992B

BETA-BISABOLENE Fruit 60 - 360 ppm DUKE1992A

Abortifacient JE32:174 ; Antirhinoviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC57=100 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Antiviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Perfumery ARC ; Stomachic X1469612

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 5 - 8 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-ELEMENE Fruit 30 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) MPT ; Antigliomic X12969529 ; Antiproliferant X12969529 ; Antitumor (Cervix) MPT ; Apoptotic X12969529

BETA-FARNESENE Fruit 220 - 440 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-PHELLANDRENE Fruit 90 - 279 ppm DUKE1992A

Expectorant JBH ; Fungicide HH2 ; Perfumery M11

BETA-PINENE Fruit 48 - 6,600 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-TERPINENE Fruit 204 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BORNYL-ACETATE Fruit 36 ppm; DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 933 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Antibacterial LAF ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.09 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antiviral LAF ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 70-80 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative

BORON Fruit 34 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

CALCIUM Fruit 9,310 - 15,511 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CARBOHYDRATES Fruit 442,000 - 570,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARVEOL Fruit 435 ppm; DUKE1992A

CNS-Stimulant PJB1(1):170

CARYOPHYLLENE Fruit 144 - 320 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Fruit 435 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant ISA14:93 ; Antiinflammatory CPB38:2283 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Calcium-Antagonist ED50=32 uM gpg J14432 ; Fungicide; Insecticide ISA14:93 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHROMIUM Fruit 8.4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CIS-GAMMA-BISABOLENE Fruit 30 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-SABINENE-HYDRATE Fruit 207 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

COBALT Fruit 2.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPAENE Fruit 30 ppm; DUKE1992A

Carminative PJB1(1):172

COPPER Fruit 9 - 16 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CRYPTONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CUMENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Narcotic DUKE1992B

CUMINALDEHYDE Fruit 4,000 - 16,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA <1 ARC ; Fungicide FT62:86 ; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide AYL ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.05 mM JAF47:4574 ; Ulcerogenic ZEB

CUMINIC-ACID Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CUMINIC-ALCOHOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CUMINYL-ALCOHOL Fruit 300 - 21,660 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DAUCENE Fruit 90 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELTA-3-CARENE Fruit 270 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic? M&R184 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Antiinflammatory ipr IJO15(4):194 ; Dermatitigenic M&R520 ; FLavor FEMA ARC ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant PJB1(2):263 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

DELTA-5,6-OCTADECENOIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DILLAPIOLE Fruit 150 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIPENTENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antibacterial LAF ; Antiviral LAF ; Expectorant JBH ; Irritant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JBH

EO Fruit 20,000 - 50,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EUGENOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm; Allergenic M&R488 ; Analgesic M11 ; Anesthetic 200-400 PR4:93 ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM PR4:93 ; Antiarachidonate PJB1(2):269 ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL MBC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiedemic 100 PR4:95 ; Antiestrogenic X12495555 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosating PCF-I:200 ; Antioxidant 10 uM HHM7:7 IC65=30 ppm PCF:219 ; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM PM186:1986 IC50=9.2 mM POP:150 ; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l PMP22:233 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B 400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Antithromboxane LRN-JUL87 ; AntiTNF X10871845 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer FT71:S131 ; Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Apifuge 382 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg J14432 IC50=224 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR4:93 ; Carcinogenic? NIG ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM JNP65:1517 IC>97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 25 ug/ml PR4:93 ; Dermatitigenic M&R489 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; FLavor FEMA 10-500 ARC ; Fungicide PMP23:60 ; Hepatoprotective 100 ppm TOX107:39 ; Herbicide PMP23:60 ; Insecticide; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant; Juvabional 382 ; Larvicide JE26:72 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt GPH27:629 IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml NIG ; Trypsin-Enhancer LRN-DEC93 ; Ulcerogenic PR4:93 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vasodilator PR14:495 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

FARNESOL Fruit 834 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiadenomic BBR225:869 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=39 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticarcinomic (Colon) JBT117:11 ; Anticarcinomic (Lung) BBR225:869 ; Antileukemic JBT117:11 ; Antimelanomic IC50=50 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antispasmodic PJB1(1):174 ; Apoptotic JBT117:11 ; FLavor FEMA 0.1-3 ARC ; Juvabional 450 ; Nematicide MLC=100 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromonal PJB1(3):238 ; Sedative PJB1(1):174 ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

FAT Fruit 134,000 - 270,380 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Fruit 105,000 - 136,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

GAMMA-TERPINENE Fruit 174 - 11,800 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GUM Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IRON Fruit 155 - 748 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

LIMONENE Fruit 60 - 696 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINALOL Fruit 30 - 318 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUTEOLIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm FT64:131 IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic X11216484 ; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic X11216484 ; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF48:235 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticataract EC=3 ppm FT64:131 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin WIC ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic AJC31:37 ; Antimelanomic AJC31:37 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio EMP5:197 ; Antiproliferant X12224631 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM BO2 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Apoptotic 12-50 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X11216484 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM BO2 ; Diuretic PT5:1986 ; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective FT66:400 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAC9:158 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Myorelaxant AYL-84 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220 ; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml CPB38:1772

LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC31=1 uM PC23:1885 IC73=10 uM DUKE1992B ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiherpetic EMP5:204 ; Antiinflammatory BIS ; Antiviral EMP5:204 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCURONOSYL-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MANGANESE Fruit 24 - 33 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

METHYL-CHAVICOL Fruit 30 ppm; DUKE1992A

Calcium-Antagonist IC50=258 uM LAB58 ; DNA-Binder PJB1(2):278 ; Hepatocarcinogenic BIS ; Hypothermic PJB1(2):278 ; Insecticide; Pesticide DUKE1992B

METHYL-CINNAMATE Fruit 138 ppm; DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 2-40 ARC ; Insecticide LAF ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRCENE Fruit 36 - 120 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRTENOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=5-50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS

NIACIN Fruit 46 - 49 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICKEL Fruit 3.6 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

P-CYMENE Fruit 810 - 12,639 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-MENTHA-1,3-DIEN-7-AL Fruit 3,330 - 4,560 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

P-MENTHA-1,4-DIEN-7-AL Fruit 7,080 - 7,290 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

P-MENTHA-3-EN-7-OL Fruit 140 - 280 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PERILLALDEHYDE Fruit 336 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12137464 ; Antibacterial MIC=500->1,000 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic JNP65:953 ; Candidicide MIC=500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Fungicide MIC=250-500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Mutagenic PH2 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Sedative PH2 ; Vibriocide 250 ug/ml HH3

PHELLANDRAL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 4,900 - 5,673 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PIPERITOL Fruit 243 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PIPERITONE Fruit 172 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1-2 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 IC50=75 uM TOX ; Insectifuge (> DEET) JNP56:935 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

POTASSIUM Fruit 17,880 - 20,916 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROTEIN Fruit 166,000 - 212,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RESIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 3 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SABINENE Fruit 30 - 1,014 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SODIUM Fruit 1,680 - 2,028 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

TANNIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

TERPINEN-4-OL Fruit 30 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TERPINOLENE-EPOXIDE Fruit 60 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

THIAMIN Fruit 6 - 7 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TRANS-PINOCARVEOL Fruit 30 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=5-50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS

TRANS-SABINENE-HYDRATE Fruit 87 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WATER Fruit 81,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

XANTHOPHYLL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Bruchifuge DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ZINC Fruit 41 - 58 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Cumin

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

AYL-84: Jim Duke's personal files

BBR225:869: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:204: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 204.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT62:86: Singh*, G., Upadhyay, R.K. 1990. Fungitoxic Activity of Cumaldehyde, Main Constituent of the Cuminum cyminum Oil. Fitoterapia 62(1): 86, 1991.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:131: Shin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.

FT66:400: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT71:S131: Jim Duke's personal files

GPH27:629: Chen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO15(4):194: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 15(4): 194, 1990+

ISA14:93: Bettarini, F., Borgonovi, G.E., et al. 1991. Antiparasitic Compounds from East African Plants: Isolation and Biological Activity of Anonaine, Matricarianol, Canthin-6-One and Caryophyllene Oxide. Insect Sci. Applic. 14(1): 93-99, 1993.

J14432: Jim Duke's personal files

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAC9:158: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:1268: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3106: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JBT117:11: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE32:174: Jim Duke's personal files

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP56:935: Bowers, W.S., Ortego, F., You, X., and Evans, P.H. Insect Repellents From The Chinese Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Journal of Natural Products, 56(6): 935-938, 1993.

JNP57:658: Denyer, C.V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D.M., Ellis, M.R., and Yound, D.A.B. Isolation of Antirhinoviral Sesquiterpenes From Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Natural Products, 57(5): 658-662, 1994.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:953: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC93: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-93.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JUL87: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jul-87.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R184: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R416: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R488: Jim Duke's personal files

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M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PCF-I:200: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:219: Jim Duke's personal files

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):170: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):172: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):174: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):261: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):263: Jim Duke's personal files

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PJB1(2):278: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM186:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP22:233: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:150: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:495: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:93: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.

PR4:95: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 95.

PT5:1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TOX107:39: Jim Duke's personal files

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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YAK112:645: Yamahara, J., et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of... Yakugaku Zasshi 112: 645-655 (1992).

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace