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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Citrus sinensis (L.) OSBECK (Rutaceae) -- Orange

Identifier

020822

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Citrus sinensis (L.) OSBECK (Rutaceae) -- Orange


Chemicals

2'-TRANS-O-FERULOYL-GALACTARIC-ACID Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2'-TRANS-O-P-COUMAROYL-GALACTARIC-ACID Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2'-TRANS-O-P-COUMAROYL-GLUCARIC-ACID Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,4-TRANS,TRANS-O-FERULOYL-GLUCARIC-ACID Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-1-PROPANOL Fruit Juice 0.07 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-TRANS-O-FERULOYL-GLUCARIC-ACID Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,3',4,5,6,7,8-HEPTAMETHOXY-FLAVONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-HYDROXY-ETHYL-HEXANOATE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYL-BUT-1-ENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYL-BUTAN-1-OL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-(3-METHYL-2-BUTENOXY)-ISO-NITROSO-ACETOPHENONE Pericarp 48 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5,6-DIHYDRO-BETA-BETA-CAROTEN-3,3',5,6-TETROL Fruit Juice: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5,8-EPOXY-5,5',8-TETRAHYDRO-BETA,BETA-CAROTEN-3,3',5',6'-TETROL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5,8-EPOXY-5,8-DIHYDRO-8'-APO-BETA-CAROTEN-3,10-DIOL Fruit Juice: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6,7-DIMETHOXYCOUMARIN Bark 162 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic FT63(3):195

ACETALDEHYDE Fruit Juice 3 - 15 ppm DUKE1992A

Addictive 8 ug/kg SN145:294 ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 4-25 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respiraparalytic DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=43 ug/ml JAF47:4574

ACETIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B

ALANINE Fruit 30 - 3,775 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALPHA-BERGAMOTENE Fruit 6 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CAROTENE Fruit 0.19 - 1.9 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer JNU ; Anticancer (Liver) JNU ; Anticancer (Lung) JNU ; Anticancer (Skin) JNU ; Antiproliferant 10 x beta-carotene JNU ; Colorant JBH ; Previtamin-A DUKE1992B

ALPHA-COPAENE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-HYDROXY-CAROTENE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID Fruit 70 - 528 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Antiaggregant FIH ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=42 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; Antimetastatic FIH ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive FIH ; Immunostimulant 0.12 ml/man/day FIH ; Lymphocytogenic 0.5 ug/ml FIH ; Propecic X10830511 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 39.5 g/day/hmn ARS:451 ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ALPHA-PINENE Fruit 10 - 60 ppm DUKE1992A Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-SINESAL Fruit 3 ppm; DUKE1992A Pericarp: JBH

No activity reported.

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Fruit 10 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 0.09 - 1.1 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Fruit 4 - 29 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antianginal PIL ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiasthmatic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic DIA ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticonvulsant Synergen FT66:507 ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic DIA ; Antiinfarctal DIA ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiischemic PIL ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC34=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiparkinsonian PIL ; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antistroke PIL ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor (Bladder) PIL ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator PIL

ALUMINUM Fruit 1 - 165 ppm DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ANTHERAXANTHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Colorant JBH

APIGENIN-7-O-ALPHA-L-RHAMNO-GLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

APOVIOLAXANTH-10'-AL Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARABAN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGININE Fruit 230 - 4,908 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ARSENIC Fruit 0.001 - 0.154 ppm DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 500 - 4,071 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Fruit 4,100 - 36,920 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Fruit 200 - 1,800 ppm DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

ASPARTIC-ACID Fruit 70 - 8,607 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

AURAPTENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiperoxidant JAF48:1763 ; Antisuperoxidogenic JAF48:1763 ; Antitumor (Colon crypts) (rat) JAF48:1763 ; Antitumor (Mouth) JAF48:1763 ; Antitumor (Skin) (mouse) JAF48:1763 ; Chemopreventive-Inhibitor JAF48:1763 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 100 ppm 400 mg/kg igs rat CR58:2550

AURAXANTHIN Fruit 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BARIUM Fruit 0.54 - 16.5 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BERGAPTOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-APO-8'-CAROTINAL Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-APO-CAROTEN-8-AL Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 1 - 28 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-CITRAURIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CRYTOXANTHIN Fruit: JBH

No activity reported.

BETA-CUBEBENE Fruit 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-ELEMENE Fruit 5 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) MPT ; Antigliomic X12969529 ; Antiproliferant X12969529 ; Antitumor (Cervix) MPT ; Apoptotic X12969529

BETA-SINESAL Fruit 6 ppm; DUKE1992A Pericarp: JBH

No activity reported.

BETA-SITOSTEROL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETA-ZEACAROTENE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETAINE Fruit 390 - 630 ppm DUKE1992A

Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antihomocystinuric; Antimyoatrophic PJB1(1) ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cardioprotective X11747976 ; Diuretic WO2 ; Emmenagogue WO2 ; Ethanolytic X11747976 ; Expectorant X15162365 ; Hepatoprotective; Lipotropic DUKE1992B ; Mucogenic X15162365 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BORON Fruit 1.89 - 27.5 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

BRAYLIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BROMINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTYRIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anticancer WER ; Antitumor WER ; Apoptotic BOI ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Nematistat 880 ug/ml NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CADMIUM Fruit 0.001 - 0.138 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive PAM ; Lithogenic PAM ; Nephrotoxic PAM

CAFFEIC-ACID Fruit 36 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CAFFEINE Bud 0.3 ppm; DUKE1992A Flower 62 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 6 ppm; DUKE1992A

(+)-Inotropic BRU ; Adenosine-Antagonist TEA ; Analeptic 200 scu mus BBE ; Analgesic-Synergist PJB1(2):263 ; Antiapneic M29 ; Antiapoptotic BOI ; Antiasthmatic 5-10 mg/kg orl/man M29 ; Anticarcinogenic PCF:305 ; Anticariogenic JD23:101 ; Antidermatitic M29 ; Antiemetic 411 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiflu EMP5:198 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:201 ; Antihypotensive 250 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antinarcotic 411 ; Antiobesity PCF:305 ; Antioxidant PC27:974 ; Antirhinitic 140 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiserotonergic 40 ipr rat BBE 40 scu rat BBE ; Antitumor PCF:305 ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antivaccinia EMP5:201 ; Antiviral V&D ; Apoptotic BOI ; Arrhythmigenic 1,500 mg/man PH2 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic 10-25 orl dog BBE 65-500 orl cat BBE ; Catabolic ABS ; cGMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant 100 orl mus 30 orl rat; Coronary-Dilator TEA ; Diuretic; Energizer 20-200 mg/man JAM272:1043 ; Ergotamine-Enhancer M29 ; FLavor FEMA 125 ARC ; Herbicide 500 ; Hypertensive; Hypoglycemic EMP6:168 ; Insecticide 382 ; Lypolytic BRU ; Myorelaxant TEA ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PJB1(2):263 ; Pyrogenic 13.3 mg/kg ipr rbt EJP45:389 15 mg/kg ipr cat EJP45:389 60 mg/day oral hmn ALG51:189 ; Respirastimulant; Spasmogenic 1,500 mg/man PH2 ; Stimulant RJH ; Tachycardic PH2 ; Teratogenic 14 orl rat BBE ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor 0.1 nM JEM168:129 75 uM TCM10:41 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 99 mM TCM10:41 ; Vasodilator BRU

CALCIUM Fruit 210 - 5,615 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPESTEROL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC37=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAD

CAPRIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAPROIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Irritant M&R503

CAPRYLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CARBOHYDRATES Fruit 99,000 - 887,125 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAROTENOIDS Fruit 12 - 35 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARVONE Fruit 2 - 10 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R683 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4-1.8 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol W&W ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JNP65:953 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 80-3,000 ARC ; Fungistat JNP65:953 ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermicide DUKE1992B

CARYOPHYLLENE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CHLORINE Fruit 12 - 32 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial M29 ; Antiherpetic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antiviral M29 ; Candidicide M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHOLESTEROL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC43=10 uM JMF5:1

CHOLINE Fruit 70 - 160 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CHROMIUM Fruit 0.005 - 0.385 ppm DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CITFLAVANONE Root Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRABASINE Root Bark 14 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRACRIDONE-I Root Bark 400 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRIC-ACID Fruit 5,600 - 9,800 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

CITRONELLAL Fruit 55 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12137464 ; Allergenic M&R333 ; Antibacterial JE26:75 ; Antiseptic 3.8 x phenol W&W ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic JAR10:7 ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA <1 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Insectifuge M11 ; Irritant ZEB ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Mutagenic? AEHD1:121 ; Nematicide MIC 1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.56 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ED=1 mg/kg W&W ; Teratogenic JNP39:446

CITRUNOBIN Root Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRUSININE-I Root Bark 80 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRUSININE-II Root Bark 40 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRUSINS Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

COBALT Fruit 0.001 - 0.055 ppm DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

CONIFERIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

Herbicide IC90-95=1,000 uM TOX ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

COPPER Fruit 0.44 - 5.5 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CRENULATIN Root Bark 60 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CRYPTOFLAVIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CRYPTOXANTHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Vitamin-A-Activity DUKE1992B

CRYPTOXANTHIN-5,5',6,6'-DIEPOXIDE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYSTINE Fruit 100 - 755 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

DEACETYL-NOMILIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DECANAL Fruit 10 - 60 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 0.15 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELPHINIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant JAF45:3395

DELTA-CADINENE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

DIHYDROKAEMPFEROL-4'-METHYL-ETHER-7-O-RHAMNOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIOSMETIN-7-O-ALPHA-L-RHAMNO-GLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIOSMIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

Anticancer; Anticapillary-Fragility 300 mg/2x/day/woman MAR ; Anticarcinogenic X9398052 ; Anticlastogen JAF48:1738 ; AntiCVI JAF52:324 ; Anticytotoxic X14750029 ; Antiedemic 50-200 mg/kg/day 600 mg/kg rat CAN ; Antihemorrhoidal 450 mg 2x/day x7days then 1x/day x2months; Antihistaminic LAF ; Antiinflammatory 600 mg/kg rat; Antileukotriene JAF45:4505 ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimetrorrhagic FT55.1984 ; Antioxidant; Antiperoxidant X3355718 ; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin JAF45:4505 ; Antiradicular X12972089 ; Antithromboxane JAF45:4505 ; Antiulcer X12972089 ; Chemopreventive; COMT-Inhibitor 200-400 mg/kg ip X3789890 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; Cytoprotective X14750029 ; Diuretic LAF ; Hypoglycemic JAF45:4505 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; MDR-Inhibitor 100 uM BP48:1437 ; P450-Inhibitor X12972089 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Venoprotective X16104801 ; Venotonic

DODECANAL Fruit 5 - 20 ppm DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-100 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

ELEMOL Root Bark 28,200 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=34 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiulcer X10823671

EO Fruit 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EPOXY-NOOTKATONE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EPOXY-VALENCENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETA-CAROTENE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHANOL Fruit Juice 64 - 900 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R722 ; Anesthetic 4,000 orl cat BBE 6,000 orl rat BBE ; Anhydrotic M29 ; Antiatherosclerotic PMID11020457 ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antipruritic MAR ; Antiseptic M11 ; CNS-Depressant MAR ; Expectorant SHT ; Hepatotoxic M29 ; Hypertensive >1 drink/day X7760897 ; Hypnotic Antidote=Naloxone M29 ; Hypocalcemic 4,000 orl rat BBE ; Hypotensive 1 drink/day X7760897 ; Mucotropic SHT ; Neurolytic M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Sclerosant M29 ; Surfactant SHT ; Teratogenic 6,000 orl dog BBE ; Tremorilytic MAR ; Ulcerogenic 5 ml/kg (50%) orl rat

ETHYL-ACETATE Fruit Juice 0.01 - 0.58 ppm DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Carminative DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 20-1,500 ARC ; Respirotoxic >400 ppm ARC ; Stimulant DUKE1992B

ETHYL-BUTYRATE Fruit Juice 0.08 - 1.02 ppm DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 30-1,400 ARC

ETHYL-SUBERENOL Root Bark 700 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETROGOL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FARNESENE Fruit 2 - 7 ppm DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone JBH

FAT Fruit 1,100 - 16,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Fruit 10 - 19 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FERULOYL-PUTRESCINE Fruit 5 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Fruit 3,740 - 47,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLAVOXANTHIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FLUORINE Fruit 0.04 - 0.76 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FOLACIN Fruit 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl PAM ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man PAM ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antineuropathic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antipsychotic M29 ; AntiSpina-Bifida DAS ; Hematopoietic M11 ; Uricosuric PAM ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PAM

FR Juice: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRUCTOSE Fruit 23,800 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

GALACTAN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GALACTOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GALACTURONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID Fruit 40 - 730 ppm DUKE1992A

Analeptic DUKE1992B ; Anticephalagic DUKE1992B ; Anticerebrotic JBH ; Antichoreic 1-32 g/man/day M29 ; Anticonvulsant 4,120 mg/kg ipr mus BBE ; Antihypertensive 1,000-4,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiinsomnic DUKE1992B ; Antilethargic DUKE1992B ; Antistress SHT76 ; Antitinnitic DUKE1992B ; Anxiolytic SHT76 ; Cardiovascular 208 ivn dog BBE ; CNS-Inhibitor 0.1 mg/kg ivn cat BBE 100 mg/kg ivn dog BBE 2,500 mg/kg scu mus BBE ; Diuretic 1,500-4,000 mg/man/day IJO13:168 ; Hypotensive 1,000-4,000 mg/day DUKE1992B ; Neuroinhibitor OHAI13:165 ; Neurotoxic to birds JBH ; Neurotransmitter; Sedative HG40:12 ; Tranquilizer WER

GAMMA-TERPINENE Fruit 10 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 0.04 - 0.46 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GERANIAL Fruit 6 - 350 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaflatoxin X19726096 ; Antibacterial JE12:279.1984 ; AntiEBV IC50=16 uM NR54:S24 ; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiviral NR54:S24 ; Antiyeast X12696686 ; Chemopreventive X17199238 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Fungicide; Glutathionigenic X17199238 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmolytic JAR10:7

GERANIOL Fruit 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic; Anthelmintic MAD ; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 7 x phenol W&W MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

GERANYL-OXY-PYRANOCOUMARIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSAN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Fruit 23,600 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUTAMIC-ACID Fruit 60 - 7,097 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLUTAMINE Fruit 30 - 630 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic 1,000 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antidepressant WER ; Antisickling JNP39:427 ; Antiulcer 1,600 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Catabolic TRA

GLYCINE Fruit 50 - 7,097 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

HEPTANAL Fruit 3 - 5 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEPTULOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HESPERIDIN Pericarp 40,600 - 63,500 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic NSN1(5):21 ; Anti-LDL NSN1(5):21 ; Antiallergenic YAK111:193 ; Antibradykinic EMP5:366 ; Anticapillary-Fragility PJB1(1):177 ; AntiDNA DUKE1992B ; Antiflu EMP5:197 ; Antihistaminic JAF45:4505 ; Antiinflammatory IC47=50 mg/kg scu JPP46:118 IC63=100 mg/kg scu JPP46:118 ; Antileukotriene JAF45:4505 ; Antioxidant IC50=8 ppm PC37:1463 ; Antiprostaglandin JAF45:4505 ; AntiRNA DUKE1992B ; Antistomatitic DUKE1992B ; Antitriglyceride NSN1(5):21 ; Antiulcer 100-150 mg/kg ipr JNP67:359 ; Antivaccinia EMP5:197 ; Antiviral V&D ; Anxiolytic JNP67:359 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Capillariprotective M29 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant 100-150 mg/kg ipr JNP67:359 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; Hypolipidemic JAF45:4505 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; ProHLDL NSN1(5):21 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

HESPERIDIN-7-O-ALPHA-L-RHAMNO-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXANAL Fruit 1 - 2 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 0.02 - 0.65 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml; FLavor FEMA <1-5 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HEXANOL Fruit Juice 0.02 - 0.22 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; FLavor FEMA 0.2-25 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HISTIDINE Fruit 180 - 1,359 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

HORDENINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antidiarrheic 35 mg/kg scu dog BBE ; Antifeedant JBH ; Bronchorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Cardiotonic 2 mg/cat ivn BBE ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:61 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasoconstrictor DUKE1992B

HYDROXYPROLINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Vulnerary HG22:17

IRON Fruit 1 - 8 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOCAPROIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOLEUCINE Fruit 250 - 1,888 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

ISOLUTEIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOPENTENYL-PSORALENS Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOPRENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISORHOIFOLIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOSAKURANETIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

JASMONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEAD Fruit 0.02 - 1.1 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Fruit 230 - 1,136 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LIMONENE Fruit 8,300 - 9,700 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 1 - 278 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LIMONEXIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anticataleptic CPB38:2334 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

LIMONOATE-A-RING-LACTONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LINALOL Fruit 30 - 530 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 0.15 - 4.69 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LINOLEIC-ACID Fruit 180 - 1,359 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LITHIUM Fruit 0.108 - 1.54 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant DAS ; Antihyperthyroid DAS ; Antimanic DAS ; AntiPMS DAS ; Antipsychotic DAS ; Antischizophrenic DAS ; Antiviral JLR2(3):16 ; Cholinergic JLR2(3):16 ; Deliriant DAS ; Natriuretic JLR2(3):16 ; Nephrotoxic DAS

LOCHNOCARPOL-A Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUTEIN Fruit 3 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic SN159:391 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antimaculitic JNU ; Antinyctalopic JNU ; Antioxidant JN126:2098 ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antiradicular JN126:2098 ; Antiretinitic Optometry 71(3):147 ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACN71:575 ; Colorant JBH ; Prooxidant 5-40 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 2.5 ug PS131:95 ; Retinoprotectant Optometry 71(3):147 ; Ubiquiot JBH

LUTEOLIN-7-O-ALPHA-L-RHAMNO-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUTEOLIN-7-O-BETA-D-RUTINOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUTEOXANTHINS Fruit 6 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LYSINE Fruit 470 - 3,548 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Fruit 98 - 1,075 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Fruit 600 - 2,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MALONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Irritant JBH

MANGANESE Fruit 8 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MANNOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiadhesive; Anticystitic 0.25-1 tsp 3-4 x/day orl man A&C3:269 ; AntiUTI PIL

MERANZINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MERCURY Fruit 0.001 ppm; DUKE1992A

Nephrotoxic PAM

METHANOL Fruit Juice 0.8 - 80 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidote =Sodium-bicarbonate M29 ; AntiHIV EC50=<20 ug/ml DUKE1992B

METHIONINE Fruit 200 - 1,510 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHYL-BUTYRATE Fruit Juice 0.01 - 0.1 ppm DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 20-100 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

MEVALONIC-ACID Fruit 0.5 ppm; DUKE1992A Pericarp 6 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MOLYBDENUM Fruit 0.1 - 0.385 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Esophagus)? DAS ; Antitumor (Esophagus)? DAS

MUTATOCHROME Fruit: JBH

No activity reported.

MUTATOXANTHIN Fruit 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRCENE Fruit 69 - 210 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

N-METHYL-TYRAMINE Fruit 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525

NARINGENIN Pericarp 35,000 - 45,800 ppm DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 1 ug/ml PM56(3):254 100 uM JBC8:211 IC25=1 uM PC23:1885 IC78=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase X14739537 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=12 uM X11714299 IC50=3.37 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antialzheimeran JAF52:1520 ; Antiamnesic JAF52:1520 ; Antiamyloid-Beta JAF52:1520 ; Antibacterial MIC=250-500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifibrotic X14709902 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic EMP5:197 ; AntiHIV IC35=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory 20 ppm JNP39:426 ; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antimutagenic ID50=50-100 nM PCF:13 ; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiperoxidative JBH ; Antiradicular JAF47:397 ; Antisindhis IC50=15 ug/ml X12520185 ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Antistaphylococcic X10857921 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer FT5:1990 ; Antiviral; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC45=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JBH ; Embryotoxic X14667474 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l; Fungicide 2.5 mM; Fungistat PC29(4):1103 ; Hepatoprotective IC50=12 uM X11714299 IC50=3.37 ppm X11714299 ; Neuroprotective JAF52:1520 ; P450-Inhibitor X9178939 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Serotonin-Inhibitor JBH ; Teratogenic X14667474 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.41 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227

NARINGENIN-4-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NARINGENIN-RUTINOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NARINGENIN-RUTINOSIDE-4-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NARINGIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor WER ; Antidermatitic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic WER ; Antioxidant DUKE1992B ; Antiviral V&D ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA ARC ; Myorelaxant TOX ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NARINGIN-7-O-ALPHA-L-RHAMNO-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NARIRUTIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

Oviposition-Stimulant JBH

NEO-BETA-CAROTENE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEOCHROME-A Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEOCHROME-B Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEOHESPERIDIN Pericarp 28,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 PCF:58 ; Antiradicular JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397

NEOHESPERIDIN-DIHYDROCHALCONE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 1000-1500 x sucrose M11

NEOPONCIRIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEOXANTHIN-A Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEOXANTHIN-B Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NERAL Fruit 1 - 20 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial IWU ; Antispasmodic JAR10:7 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389

NEROLIDOL Flower: JBH

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC=25-200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antifeedant 1 mM (diet) TOX ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NERYL-ACETATE Fruit 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1-15 ARC ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NERYL-FORMATE Fruit 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 5-15 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

NEUROSPORIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NIACIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICKEL Fruit 0.01 - 0.55 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

NITROGEN Fruit 500 - 13,845 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NOBELITIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NOMILIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Antifeedant 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NONANAL Fruit 6 - 20 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NONANOL Fruit 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NOOTKATOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Calcium-Antagonist 30 uM; Vasodilator MPT

NOOTKATONE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiulcer 20 mg/kg orl rat CPB38:3053 ; FLavor FEMA 3-50 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

NORDENTATIN Root Bark 300 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial 10-200 ppm DUKE1992B

OBACUNONE Seed: DUKE1992A

Anticataleptic CPB38:2334 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

OCTAN-1-AL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTANAL Fruit 20 - 280 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 0.28 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTOPAMINE Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCTYL-ACETATE Fruit 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OLEIC-ACID Fruit 20 - 1,510 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

OSTHOLE Root: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial JE15 ; Calcium-Antagonist; Juvabional; Pesticide

OXALIC-ACID Fruit 87 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-COUMARIC-ACID Fruit 5 - 17 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-CYMENE Fruit 20 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-HYDROQUINONE Root Bark 80 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Fruit 130 - 982 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Fruit 30 - 226 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Fruit 2 - 19 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PECTIN Fruit 1,300 - 5,900 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PECTINESTERASE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PERILLALDEHYDE Fruit 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12137464 ; Antibacterial MIC=500->1,000 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic JNP65:953 ; Candidicide MIC=500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Fungicide MIC=250-500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Mutagenic PH2 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Sedative PH2 ; Vibriocide 250 ug/ml HH3

PHENYLALANINE Fruit 310 - 2,340 ppm DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHLORIN Plant: JBH

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 136 - 1,980 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PHYTOENE Fruit 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHYTOFLUENE Fruit 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POLYGALACTURONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PONCITRIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Fruit 1,400 - 13,772 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROLINE Fruit 60 - 3,473 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPIONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-36,000 ARC ; Fungicide 2,500-36,000; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient ZEB

PROTEIN Fruit 9,260 - 78,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 3 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RUBIDIUM Fruit 0.1 - 7.7 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RUTIN Leaf 9,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Pericarp 6,100 ppm; DUKE1992A

5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

SABINENE Fruit 10 - 60 ppm DUKE1992A Fruit Juice 0.15 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SCOPARONE Bark: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 10 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiatherogenic CWW ; Antihepatotoxic BIS ; Antiimplantation JE32:173 ; Antiinflammatory PJB1(2):286 ; Antiischemic JOP10:493 ; Antiproliferant CWW ; Antiradicular CWW ; Antiretinopathic JOP10:493 ; Antispasmodic HDN ; Cardiac JBH ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic; CNS-Depressant 40-80 mg/kg ipr HDN ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Hypocholesterolemic CWW ; Hypotensive 5-20 mg/kg ivn HDN ; Immunosuppressant 10-30 uM; Myorelaxant HDN ; Tranquilizer HDN ; Vasodilator

SCUTELLAREIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC56=10uM; IC10=1uM PC23:1885 ; Antihemolytic DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Antioxidant ED=uM XEN24:689 ; Antiviral IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor FT2:103.1986

SELENIUM Fruit 0.002 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Oranges

Commonsteps

References

356: Grainge, M. and Ahmed, S., Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1988, 470. Note: Author list various compounds as active principle, thus leading me to enter all the aconitine alkaloids, e.g, as insecticidal, though authors do not specifically say that all are insecticidal.

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

500: Jim Duke's personal files

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

71(3):147: Jim Duke's personal files

A&C3:269: Jim Duke's personal files

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ABS: Abstract (See species file)

ACM:134: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 134.

ACM:175: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACN71:575: Jim Duke's personal files

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:121: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ALG51:189: Daroca, P., Rodriguez, J., Reano, M., Canto, G., Miranda, P. 1996. Fever From Caffeine. Allergy, 51(3): 189-191.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARS:451: Ferretti, A., Flanagan, V. P. 1996. Antithromboxane Activity of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid: A Pilot Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 54(6): 451-455. ARS, USDA.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BP48:1437: Critchfield, J. W., Welsh, C. J., Phang, J. M., Yeh, G. C. 1994. Modulation of Adriamycin Accumulation and Efflux by Flavonoids in HCT-15 Colon Cells. Activation of P-Glycoprotein as a Putative Mechanism. Biochem Pharmacol, 48(7): 1437-1445.

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CPB38:2334: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB38:3053: Yamahara, J., Li, Y.H., and Tamai, Y. 1990. Anti-ulcer Effect in Rats of Bitter Cardamon Constituents. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3053-3054, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CR58:2550: Tanaka,T. et al.1998.Citrus Auraptene Exerts Dose-Dependent Chemopreventive Activity in Rat Large Bowel Tumorigenesis:The Inhibition Correlates with Suppression of Cell Proliferation & Lipid Peroxidation & with Induction of Phase II-. Cancer Res.58:2550.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DIA: Soumyanath, A. Ed. 2006. Traditional Medicines for Modern Times - Antidiabetic Plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 314 pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP45:389: Dascombe, M. J. 1977. Effects of Methylxanthine Drugs on Pyrogen-Induced Hyperthermia. Eur J Pharmacol, 45: 389-392.

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:201: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP5:366: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 366.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:168: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIH: Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT2:103.1986: Somasundaram, S., Sadique, J. 1985. Anti-hemolytic Effect of Flavonoidal Glycosides of Clerodendron inerme: An in vitro Study. Fitoterapia 57(2): 103, 1986.

FT55.1984: Fitoterapia No.55-1984.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:507: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HG22:17: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO13:168: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3395: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1763: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5884: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:1520: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:324: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAM272:1043: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JD23:101: Jim Duke's personal files

JE12:279.1984: Onawunmi, G.O., Yisak, W-A., Ogunlana,* E.O. 1984. Antibacterial Constituents In The Essential Oil Of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12: 279-286, 1984.

JE15: Jim Duke's personal files

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:75: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE32:173: Jim Duke's personal files

JEM168:129: Tohda, H., Zhao, J. H., Oikawa, A. 1992. A Possible Involvement of DNA Topoisomerase I in "Caffeine Effect" After Ultraviolet Irradiation. Tohoku J Exp Med, 168: 129-132.

JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.

JLR2(3):16: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN126:2098: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP39:426: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:427: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:446: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:953: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:359: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JOP10:493: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:118: Da Silva Emim, J.A., Oliveira, A.B. and Lapa, A.J. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory Activity of a Citrus Bioflavonoid, Hesperidin, and the Isoflavonoids, Duartin and Claussequinone, in Rats and Mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46:118-122,1994

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

JSPR22:141.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRN-MAR91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Mar-91.

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN-SEP97: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R333: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R514: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R683: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R722: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

M30: Martindale's 30th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S24: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

NSN1(5):21: Jim Duke's personal files

OHAI13:165: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:974: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(1):297: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(4):1103: Weidenborner, M., Hindorf, H., Jha, H.C., and Tsotsonos, P. 1989. Antifungal Activity of Flavonoids Against Storage Fungi of the Genus Aspergillus. Phytochemistry. 29(4): 1103-1105.

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PC37:1463: Phytochemistry, 37: 1463.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:13: Maga, J.A. Contribution of Phenolic Compounds to Smoke Flavor. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.13.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:305: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:58: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):177: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):263: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):286: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(3):254: Aida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID11020457: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:61: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT: Schulz, V, Hansel, R and Tyler, VE. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy - A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. 1st English Edition. Translated by Terry C. Telger. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. 306 pp.

SHT76: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN145:294: Science News, 145: 294.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN159:391: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TCM10:41: Shin, C. G., Strayer, J. M., Wani, M., Snapka, R. M. 1990. Rapid Evaluation of Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Caffeine Inhibition of Topoisomerases in vivo. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen, 10: 41-52.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TRA: Tramil

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO2: Wealth of India.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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XEN24:689: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK111:193: Yakugaku Zasshi, 111: 193, 1991.

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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