Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cistus ladaniferus L. (Cistaceae) -- Ambreine, Gum Cistus, Labdanum, Rockrose

Identifier

019306

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cistus ladaniferus L. (Cistaceae) -- Ambreine, Gum Cistus, Labdanum, Rockrose


Chemicals

1,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANONE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1,8-CINEOLE Essential Oil 2 - 140 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

12-NORAMBREINOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

15-HYDROXY-7-LABDEN-6-ONE Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

15-NOR-8-LABDANOL Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,2,6-TRIMETHYL-CYCLOHEXANONE Leaf 48 - 3,360 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-OXO-CATIVIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6BETA-8-ACETOXY-7-OXO-8-LABDEN-15-OIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-ABIETEN-18-OIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-EPI-NORAMBREINOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETOPHENONE Leaf 17 - 1,190 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Fungicide PC29:1093 ; Hypnotic JBH ; Perfumery FEMA <10,000; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Soporific ARC

ALDEHYDES Leaf 10 - 70 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Plant 3 - 210 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial CWW ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Dermal JBH ; Emetic PJB1(1) ; FLavor FEMA 10-130 ARC ; Fungicide HH2 ; Insectiphile PEP ; Irritant JBH ; Laxative PJB1(1) ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 40 - 31,500 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINENE Leaf 2 - 140 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic PR14:623

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Leaf 24 - 1,680 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

ALPHA-THUJONE Leaf 8 - 560 ppm DUKE1992A

Abortifacient CAN ; Antibacterial JEO7:271 ; Emmenagogue CAN ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Larvicide JNP49:941.1986 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

AMBREINOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ANISIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella MIC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=680 uM

ARACHIDIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BEHENIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Cosmetic JBH

BENZALDEHYDE Leaf 28 - 1,960 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R594 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial LAF337 ; Anticancer ARO95:16 ; Antimutagenic X10563930 ; Antipeptic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor ARO95:16 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 150-800 ARC ; Immunostimulant ARO95:16 ; Insecticide LAF ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Narcotic M11 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g X11879008 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.82 mM JAF47:4574 ID50=820 uM ID50=830 uM JAF50:1400 ID50=87 ug/ml JAF46:1268

BETA-PHELLANDRENE Plant 2 - 140 ppm DUKE1992A

Expectorant JBH ; Fungicide HH2 ; Perfumery M11

BETA-PINENE Leaf 6 - 420 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-TERPINENE Leaf 2 - 140 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BORNEOL Leaf 24 - 1,680 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

BORNYL-ACETATE Leaf 32 - 2,240 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 933 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Antibacterial LAF ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.09 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antiviral LAF ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 70-80 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative

CAMPHENE Leaf 11 - 770 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CINEOLE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-3-HEXEN-1-OL Leaf 68 - 4,760 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-CITRAL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEHYDROABIETINIC-ACID-METHYL-ESTER Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELTA-13,14-ISOHYDROABIETINIC-ACID-METHYL-ESTER Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIACETYL Leaf: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 3-50 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

DIHYDROCINNAMIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIHYDROPALUSTRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Essential Oil 1,000 - 70,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EUGENOL Leaf 15 - 1,050 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm; Allergenic M&R488 ; Analgesic M11 ; Anesthetic 200-400 PR4:93 ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM PR4:93 ; Antiarachidonate PJB1(2):269 ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL MBC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiedemic 100 PR4:95 ; Antiestrogenic X12495555 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosating PCF-I:200 ; Antioxidant 10 uM HHM7:7 IC65=30 ppm PCF:219 ; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM PM186:1986 IC50=9.2 mM POP:150 ; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l PMP22:233 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B 400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Antithromboxane LRN-JUL87 ; AntiTNF X10871845 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer FT71:S131 ; Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Apifuge 382 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg J14432 IC50=224 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR4:93 ; Carcinogenic? NIG ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM JNP65:1517 IC>97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 25 ug/ml PR4:93 ; Dermatitigenic M&R489 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; FLavor FEMA 10-500 ARC ; Fungicide PMP23:60 ; Hepatoprotective 100 ppm TOX107:39 ; Herbicide PMP23:60 ; Insecticide; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant; Juvabional 382 ; Larvicide JE26:72 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt GPH27:629 IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml NIG ; Trypsin-Enhancer LRN-DEC93 ; Ulcerogenic PR4:93 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vasodilator PR14:495 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

FENCHENE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FENCHONE Essential Oil 10 - 770 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Anticholinesterase LGR ; Counterirritant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 0.1-5 ARC ; Perfumery M11 ; Secretolytic BIS

FURFURAL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic LAF ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

FURFUROL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-TERPINENE Leaf 2 - 140 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GERANIAL Leaf 27 - 1,090 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaflatoxin X19726096 ; Antibacterial JE12:279.1984 ; AntiEBV IC50=16 uM NR54:S24 ; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiviral NR54:S24 ; Antiyeast X12696686 ; Chemopreventive X17199238 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Fungicide; Glutathionigenic X17199238 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmolytic JAR10:7

GERANIOL Leaf 17 - 1,190 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic; Anthelmintic MAD ; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 7 x phenol W&W MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

GERANYL-ACETATE Leaf 6 - 420 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R333 ; FLavor FEMA 1-20 ARC ; Insectiphile JBH ; Perfumery JBH ; Sedative JA6(4):40

HENTRIACONTANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOMENTHONE Leaf 23 - 1,610 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.6 mM JAF45:677 ; Antioxidant X12802721 ; Antiradicular X12802721

LABD-8(17)-EN-15-OL Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LABDANDIOL Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LABDANE-8-ALPHA,15,19-ALPHA-TRIOL Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LABDANE-8-ALPHA-15-DIOL Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LABDANOLIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LABDANTRIOL Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEDOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Leaf 17 - 1,190 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINALOL Leaf 4 - 280 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRCENE Leaf 3 - 210 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NEROL Leaf 22 - 1,540 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial HG17 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; FLavor FEMA 1-20 ARC ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide ED100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

NONACOSANE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic 250 ug/mL JAF37:1364.1989 ; Antiviral PS75:161

P-CYMENE Leaf 16 - 1,120 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

PARAFFIN Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Antihemorrhoidal M29 ; Antiproctalgic M29 ; Emollient M29 ; Laxative 45 mL/day/orl/man/ M29

PHENOLS Leaf 10 - 700 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SABINENE Leaf 10 - 700 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

TERPINEN-4-OL Leaf 1 - 70 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TRANS-2-HEXEN-1-OL Leaf 45 - 3,150 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRANS-CITRAL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VIRIDIFLOROL Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=25 ug/ml JAF46:3434

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARO95:16: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT71:S131: Jim Duke's personal files

GPH27:629: Chen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

J14432: Jim Duke's personal files

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JA6(4):40: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAF37:1364.1989: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:1268: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1400: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE12:279.1984: Onawunmi, G.O., Yisak, W-A., Ogunlana,* E.O. 1984. Antibacterial Constituents In The Essential Oil Of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12: 279-286, 1984.

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.

JEO7:271: J. Ess. Oil Res. 7: 271.

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:941.1986: Misra, L.N. and Singh, S.P. Alpha-Thujone, The Major Component Of The Essential Oil From Artemisia vulgaris Growing Wild In Nilgiri Hills. Journal of Natural Products, 49: 941, 1986.

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

JSPR22:141.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LGR: L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-DEC93: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-93.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JUL87: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jul-87.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRN-SEP97: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R333: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R488: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R489: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R594: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NR54:S24: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29:1093: Tomas-Barberan, F., Iniesta-Sanmartin, E., Tomas-Lorente, F., and Rumbero, A. 1989. Antimicrobial Phenolic Compounds From Three Spanish Helichrysum Species. Phytochemistry. 29(4): 1093-1095. 1990.

PCF-I:200: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:219: Jim Duke's personal files

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM186:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP22:233: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:150: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:495: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:93: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.

PR4:95: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 95.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TOX107:39: Jim Duke's personal files

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

X10408241: Jim Duke's personal files

X10434134: Jim Duke's personal files

X10563930: Jim Duke's personal files

X10606544: Jim Duke's personal files

X10823671: Jim Duke's personal files

X10826162: Jim Duke's personal files

X10826719: Jim Duke's personal files

X10871845: Jim Duke's personal files

X11085358: Jim Duke's personal files

X11124373: Jim Duke's personal files

X11281182: Jim Duke's personal files

X11313116: Jim Duke's personal files

X11559128: Jim Duke's personal files

X11678668: Jim Duke's personal files

X11879008: Jim Duke's personal files

X1242658: Jim Duke's personal files

X12495555: Jim Duke's personal files

X12537346: Jim Duke's personal files

X12587690: Jim Duke's personal files

X12696686: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802721: Jim Duke's personal files

X1438594: Jim Duke's personal files

X14506036: Jim Duke's personal files

X14703969: Jim Duke's personal files

X14998133: Jim Duke's personal files

X15598576: Jim Duke's personal files

X15778119: Jim Duke's personal files

X15825766: Jim Duke's personal files

X15862904: Jim Duke's personal files

X16248573: Jim Duke's personal files

X16964395: Jim Duke's personal files

X17199238: Jim Duke's personal files

X17867636: Jim Duke's personal files

X18072821: Jim Duke's personal files

X19726096: Jim Duke's personal files

X2364470: Jim Duke's personal files

X7199340: Jim Duke's personal files

X9242356: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Fri Nov 6 07:38:08 EST 2015