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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Chamaemelum nobile (L.) ALL. (Asteraceae) -- Garden Camomile, Perennial Camomile, Roman Camomile

Identifier

019008

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Chamaemelum nobile (L.) ALL. (Asteraceae) -- Garden Camomile, Perennial Camomile, Roman Camomile


Chemicals

1,10-EPOXYNOBILIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antitumor DUKE1992B

1,8-CINEOLE Plant: DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

2,3-DIHYDROXYCINNAMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-2-PROPYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-PROPANE-1,3-DIYL-1-(Z)-2'-METHYL-2'BUTEONATE... Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYLBUTYL-2-METHYLPROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYLBUTYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYLIDENEPROPANE-1,3-DIYL-1-(Z)-2'-METHYL-2'BUTENOATE... Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYLPROPYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYLPROPYL-3-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYLPROPYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,4-DIHYDROXYCINNAMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-DEHYDRONOBILIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antitumor DUKE1992B

3-EPINOBILIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-HYDROXY-2-METHYLIDENE-BUTYRIC-ACID-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYL-1-BUTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYLAMYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYLBUTYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYLIDENE-4-OXPENTYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYLPENTYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-ISOPROPENYL-BENZALDEHYDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-ISOPROPENYL-TOLUENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5 Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-(3-FURYL)-2-METHYL-1-PENTEN-3-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-(3-FURYL)-2-METHYL-1-PENTEN-3-ONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-ISOPROPENYL-2'-(2-METHYLPROPYL)-2-CYCLOHEXEN-1-ONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-BISABOLENE-OXIDE-A Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-BISABOLOL-OXIDE-A Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-BISABOLOL-OXIDE-B Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CADINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-COPAENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CUBEBENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-METHYLBUTYL-ISOBUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-P-DIMETHYL-STYRENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic PR14:623

ALPHA-TRANS-PINOCARVEOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-TRANS-PINOCARVONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALUMINUM Flower 27 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ANTHEMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Emetic CAN

ANTHEMOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

APIGENIN Plant: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; AntiADD LIB ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.57 ppm X11714299 IC50=9.52 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antiangiogenic 4 uM; Antiarrhythmic PT4:118 ; Antibacterial 452 ; Anticancer (Lung) X15947208 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antiherpetic 20-54 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=10-35 uM; AntiHIV IC50=143 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 IC72=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory = indomethacin IC~65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM BO2 ; Antimelanomic 1-50 uM; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.55 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 1.5 x Vit. E IC28.5=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiproliferant 1-50 uM IC50=155 uM JE91:65.2004 ; Antispasmodic EC50=1-5 uM; Antistress 10 mg/kg; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (Breast) BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Skin) MSC'96 ; Antiviral 20-54 ug/ml; Anxiolytic 10 mg/kg; Apoptotic 12-60 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC65=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist? BBA1115:69 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic FTS:1986 ; CNS-Depressant JNP67:359 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM IC50=<15 uM X10506109 IC>65=1,000 uM HHM7:7 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 IC50=9.5 uM JE91:65.2004 IC88=10 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC40=40 uM BO2 MIC=30 uM BO2 ; Diuretic JBH ; DNA-Protective X11752233 ; Estrogenic 16% genistein BO2 EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=1 uM X10923837 ; HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor X15947208 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=50-250 uM BO2 ; Hypotensive JBH ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X12909272 ; MAO-Inhibitor PH2 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Myorelaxant JBH ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15322261 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Nodulation-Signal JBH ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; P21-Inducer 10-70 uM BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PKC-Inhibitor IC50=10 uM MSC'96 ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Progestational X10989984 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=10-40 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 20 uM CLE120:213 ; Radioprotective PH2 ; Sedative 30-100 mg/kg PM61:213 ; Sunscreen MSC'96 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.27 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 50 ug/ml JB118:312 IC28=18 uM BO2 IC45=180 uM BO2 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 0.36 uM PM69:1125

APIGENIN-7-APIOSYLGLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

APIGENIN-7-GLUCOSIDE-(2",3")-DIACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

APIGETRIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

APIIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antiarrhythmic PT4:118 ; Antibradykinic EMP5:366 ; Antispasmodic IWU

ASCORBIC-ACID Flower 267 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Flower 62,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AZULENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic IWU ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory PEP ; Antipyretic HG20:40 ; Antiseptic 6-500 VAL ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antiulcer ED50=150 (orl) DUKE1992B ; Hepatoregenerative CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BETA-BISABOLENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient JE32:174 ; Antirhinoviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC57=100 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Antiviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Perfumery ARC ; Stomachic X1469612

BETA-BOURBONENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Flower 2.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-COPAENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CUBEBENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-DAMASCENONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiedemic POP:150 ; Antiinflammatory POP:150 ; Antispasmodic cf papaverine POP:150

BETA-MYRCENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Perfumery M11

BETA-PINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-SELINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=>50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS ; Perfumery ARC

BISABOLENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BORNEOL Plant: DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

BUTANE-1,3-DIYL-1-((Z)-2'-METHYL-2'-BUTENOATE)-3-ISOB... Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BUTYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Flower 6,720 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPHENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CARBOHYDRATES Flower 785,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHAMAZULENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic PJB1(1):170 ; Antiallergic LRN-MAR91 ; Antiinflammatory M11 ; Antileukotriene MAB ; Antioxidant PMP25:50 ; Antipyretic JBH ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antispasmodic PJB1(1):170 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vulnerary PJB1(1):170

CHOLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CHROMIUM Flower 6 ppm; DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

COBALT Flower 58 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

CYCLODODECANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-3-METHYL-PENTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEHYDROMATRICARIA-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EN-YN-DICYCLOETHER Plant: DUKE1992A

Antianaphylactic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic EC50=1-2 uM 411 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

EO Plant 6,000 - 17,500 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EPICATECHOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EPSILON-1-(2,6-DIMETHYLPHENYL)-2-BUTEN-1-ONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EUCANNABINOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FARNESENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone JBH

FARNESOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiadenomic BBR225:869 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=39 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticarcinomic (Colon) JBT117:11 ; Anticarcinomic (Lung) BBR225:869 ; Antileukemic JBT117:11 ; Antimelanomic IC50=50 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antispasmodic PJB1(1):174 ; Apoptotic JBT117:11 ; FLavor FEMA 0.1-3 ARC ; Juvabional 450 ; Nematicide MLC=100 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromonal PJB1(3):238 ; Sedative PJB1(1):174 ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

FAT Flower 39,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Flower 72,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

GERMACRENE-D Plant: DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone DUKE1992B

HERNIARIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 10 ug/ml cow (weak activity) CPB43:1385 ; Allergenic BIS ; Antiallergic LRN-MAR91 ; Antibacterial 100 ppm FT63(5):387 ; Antispasmodic FT63(5):387 ; Antistaphylococcic FT63(5):387 ; Candidicide; Cholagogue FT5:1986 ; Fungicide FT63(5):387 ; Hepatoprotective YHJ37:182 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photoactive FT63(5):387

HEXYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 3-25 ARC

HEXYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 2-10 ARC

HUMULENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=86 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial

HYDROXYISONOBILIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INOSITOL Flower: DUKE1992A

Antialopecic DUKE1992B ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic? M29 ; Antineuropathic? 2 g/day WER ; Cholesterolytic 2,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic JBH ; Sweetener JBH ; Ubiquiot JAD

IRON Flower 170 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOAMYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOAMYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOAMYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOAMYL-PROPIONATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-BUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-ISOBUTYRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-ISOVALERIANATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KILOCALORIES Flower 2,999 /kg; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LUTEOLIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm FT64:131 IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic X11216484 ; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic X11216484 ; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF48:235 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticataract EC=3 ppm FT64:131 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin WIC ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic AJC31:37 ; Antimelanomic AJC31:37 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio EMP5:197 ; Antiproliferant X12224631 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM BO2 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Apoptotic 12-50 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X11216484 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM BO2 ; Diuretic PT5:1986 ; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective FT66:400 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAC9:158 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Myorelaxant AYL-84 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220 ; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml CPB38:1772

LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC31=1 uM PC23:1885 IC73=10 uM DUKE1992B ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiherpetic EMP5:204 ; Antiinflammatory BIS ; Antiviral EMP5:204 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MAGNESIUM Flower 2,920 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Flower 52 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

METHACRYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHACRYLIC-ACID-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRCENE Plant: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRTENAL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=5-50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS ; Herbicide TOX ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRTENOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=5-50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS

N-BUTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEROLIDOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC=25-200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antifeedant 1 mM (diet) TOX ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NIACIN Flower: DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NOBILIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antitumor DUKE1992B

P-CYMENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

PHOSPHORUS Flower 3,220 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic LRN-APR93 ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic FT59:465 ; Convulsant RJH ; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JE26:72 ; Fungicide JAF40:2329 ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

PINOCAMPHONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Convulsant >0.05 mg/kg ipr rat; Epileptigenic ARO95:23 ; Neurotoxic; Pesticide DUKE1992B

POLYACETYLENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Flower 13,200 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROPYL-ANGELATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Flower 115,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUECIMERITRIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETRIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Flower 4.3 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RUTIN Plant: DUKE1992A

5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

SABINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SCOPOLETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM 438 ; Analgesic PM56(6):595 ; Anesthetic HDN ; Antiadrenergic HDN ; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm X11714299 IC50=65 uM X11714299 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihepatotoxic BIS ; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear PM56(6):504 ; Antileukotrienogenic PM56(6):595 ; Antimutagenic MAB ; Antioxidant PH2 ; Antiproliferant X11749777 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Apoptotic X11749777 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; CNS-Stimulant WBB ; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM BIOSIS'96 ; Hepatoprotective WIC ; Herbicide JBH ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:165 ; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor X11575966 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin PC29(6):1789 ; Phytohormonal JBH ; Uterosedative 411

SCOPOLETIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SCOPOLETOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PMP23:53 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SELENIUM Flower: DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

SILICON Flower 31 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic DAS ; Antionychyotic PIL ; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective PIL

SODIUM Flower 2,580 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

TANNIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

TARAXASTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiedemic PM60:516 ; Antiinflammatory 1/2 Indomethacin PM60:516

THIAMIN Flower 0.8 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TIGLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Perfumery M11

TIGLIC-ACID-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TIN Flower 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiacne DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Taenicide MAR

TRIACONTANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

UMBELLIFERONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=4.8 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC94=2 mM 438 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antiedemic HDN ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory RWG141 ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic FT63(5):387 ; Cancer-Preventive PM1987:526 ; Candidicide FT63(5):387 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide 411 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photoactive FT63(5):387 ; Sunscreen M11 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor MAB

WATER Flower 812,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Flower: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Chamomile tea

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARO95:23: Jim Duke's personal files

AYL-84: Jim Duke's personal files

BBA1115:69: Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1115: 69, 1991.

BBR225:869: Jim Duke's personal files

BIOSIS'96: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:204: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 204.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP5:366: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 366.

EMP6:165: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 165

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT1990:503: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(5):387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:131: Shin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:400: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

FTS:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG20:40: HerbalGram No. 20, page 40.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAC9:158: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3106: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JB118:312: Azuma, Y., Onishi, Y., Sato, Y., Kizaki, H. 1995. Effects of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors With Different Modes of Action on Topoisomerase Activity and Death of IL-2-Dependent CTLL-2-Cells. J Biochemistry, 118: 312-318.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JBT117:11: Jim Duke's personal files

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE32:174: Jim Duke's personal files

JE91:65.2004: Jim Duke's personal files

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP57:658: Denyer, C.V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D.M., Ellis, M.R., and Yound, D.A.B. Isolation of Antirhinoviral Sesquiterpenes From Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Natural Products, 57(5): 658-662, 1994.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:359: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LIB: Jim Duke's personal files

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-APR93: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRN-MAR91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Mar-91.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R514: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(6):1789: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):170: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):174: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM1987:526: Gawron, A. and Glowniak, K. 1987. Cytostatic Activity of Coumarins in vitro. Planta Medica 1987: 526.

PM56(6):504: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):595: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM60:516: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:213: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

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PMP25:50: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:150: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

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PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PT4:118: Jim Duke's personal files

PT5:1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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YAK112:645: Yamahara, J., et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of... Yakugaku Zasshi 112: 645-655 (1992).

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

YHJ37:182: Yakhak Hoeji, 37: 182, 1993.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.