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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asteraceae) -- Safflower

Identifier

020845

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asteraceae) -- Safflower


Chemicals

(E)-11-TRIDECENE-3,5,7,9-TETRAYNE-1,2-DIOL Sprout Seedling 5.9 - 6.2 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E)-2-HEPTENAL Bud 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E)-2-HEXENAL Flower 0.5 - 0.6 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1.67 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

(E)-2-HEXENOL Bud 0.22 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.73 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E)-2-METHYL-2-BUTENAL Bud 0.05 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E)-2-PENTENAL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E)-2-PENTENOL Bud 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E)-BETA-FARNESENE Flower 0.05 - 0.19 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E,E)-2,4-DECADIENAL Flower 0.15 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E,E)-3,11-TRIDECADIENE-5,7,9-TRIYNE-1,2-DIOL Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E,Z)-2,8-DECADIENE-4,6-DIYNE-1-YL-3-METHYLBUTYRATE Flower 1.09 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(E,Z,E)-1,3,5,11-TRIDECATETRAENE-7,9-DIYNE Flower 2 - 28 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 3 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(FUNGICIDE) Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z)-2-HEPTENAL Bud 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z)-2-PENTENOL Bud 0.23 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z)-3-HEXENOL Bud 0.57 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 1.41 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z)-3-HEXENYL-BENZOATE Bud 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.05 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z)-3-HEXENYL-BUTYRATE Leaf 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z)-8-DECENE-4,6-DIYNE-1-YL-3-METHYLBUTYRATE Flower 0.9 - 19.7 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.07 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z,Z)-1,8,11-HEPTADECATRIENE Flower 0.69 - 1.42 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1.74 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z,Z)-3,11-TRIDECATRIENE-5,7,9-TRIYNE Flower 0.82 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(Z,Z,Z)-1,8,11,14-HEPTADECATETRAENE Flower 1.54 - 7.8 ppm JAF38:1245

No activity reported.

1,2,3-TRIMETHOXY-5-METHYL-BENZENE Flower 1.12 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-HEPTADECENE Flower 0.31 - 0.51 ppm DUKE1992A Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-HEXADECENE Flower 0.05 - 0.11 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.22 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-PENTADECENE Flower 9 - 110 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 138 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antitumor DUKE1992B

1-TRIDECENE Bud 0.16 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.19 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-TRIDECENE-3,5,7,9,11-PENTAYNE Flower 0.39 - 0.79 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

11E-TRIDECA-1,11-DIENE-3,5,7,9-TETRAYNE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

11Z-TRIDECA-1,11-DIENE-3,5,7,9-TETRAYNE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-HEXANOL Flower 0.12 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-HYDROXYARCTIIN Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTYRIC-ACID Flower 0.11 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-PROPANOL Bud 0.07 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYLPENT-2-ENAL Bud 0.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,5,11E-TRIDECA-1,3,5,11-TETRAENE-7,9-DIYNE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-HEXANOL Flower 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-METHYL-BUTYRIC-ACID Flower 1.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3E,11E-TRIDECA-1,3,11-TRIENE-5,7,9-TRIYNE Flower: DUKE1992A Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3E,5E,11E-TRIDECA-1,3,5,11-TETRAENE-7,9-DIYNE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3E,5Z,11E-TRIDECA-1,3,5,11-TETRAENE-7,9-DIYNE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3E-TRIDECA-1,3-DIENE-5,7,9,11-TETRAYNE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3Z,11E-TRIDECA-1,3,11-TRIENE-5,7,9-TRIYNE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3Z,11Z-TRIDECA-1,3,11-TRIENE-5,7,9-TRIYNE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3Z,11Z-TRIDECA-1,3,11-TRIENE-5,7,9-TRIYNR Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLO-AROMADENDRENE Bud 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CEDRENE Flower 0.24 - 1.4 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfume ZEB

ALPHA-COPAENE Flower 0.17 - 0.22 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.05 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-GURJUNENE Bud 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-MUUROLENE Bud 0.09 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Bud 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial CWW ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Dermal JBH ; Emetic PJB1(1) ; FLavor FEMA 10-130 ARC ; Fungicide HH2 ; Insectiphile PEP ; Irritant JBH ; Laxative PJB1(1) ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Oil 449 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antianginal PIL ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiasthmatic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic DIA ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticonvulsant Synergen FT66:507 ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic DIA ; Antiinfarctal DIA ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiischemic PIL ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC34=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiparkinsonian PIL ; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antistroke PIL ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor (Bladder) PIL ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator PIL

ALUMINUM Flower 84 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ARACHIDIC-ACID Seed 1,000 - 3,130 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARSENIC Flower 0.48 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Flower 38,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Plant 15,000 - 122,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 40,000 - 45,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BEHENIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Cosmetic JBH

BENZALDEHYDE Bud 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R594 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial LAF337 ; Anticancer ARO95:16 ; Antimutagenic X10563930 ; Antipeptic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor ARO95:16 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 150-800 ARC ; Immunostimulant ARO95:16 ; Insecticide LAF ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Narcotic M11 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g X11879008 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.82 mM JAF47:4574 ID50=820 uM ID50=830 uM JAF50:1400 ID50=87 ug/ml JAF46:1268

BENZENE Flower 0.13 - 0.25 ppm DUKE1992A

Insecticide PJB1(2):262 ; Larvicide PJB1(2):262 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BENZOTHIAZOLE Flower 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CYCLOCITRAL Flower 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.05 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-IONONE Flower 0.07 - 0.88 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.09 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic CD33:333 ; Antibacterial MIC=200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic MIC=100 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=140 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Fungicide; Hypocholesterolemic JAF43:2144 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

BETA-SELINENE Flower 0.14 - 0.29 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.11 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=>50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS ; Perfumery ARC

CALCIUM Flower 4,430 - 7,700 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 17,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 1,260 - 1,324 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CARBOHYDRATES Plant 692,000 - 892,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 124,000 - 530,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARTHAMIN Flower 3,000 - 6,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Dye M11

CARTHAMONE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARYOPHYLLENE Flower 43 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 27 - 28 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CARYOPHYLLENE-EPOXIDE Flower 2.4 - 4.5 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1.14 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antifeedant 1 mM (diet) TOX ; Attifuge CIB ; Fungistat CIB ; Insectifuge CIB ; Larvicide IC60=5 mM 438 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHROMIUM Flower 31 ppm; DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

COBALT Flower 26 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Flower 20 - 26 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CYCLOSATIVENE Bud 0.09 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DECA-4,6-DIYN-1-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DECA-4,6-DIYN-1-YL-3-METHYLBUTYRATE Flower 0.7 - 12.2 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.59 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DECANAL Flower 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DECANE Bud 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELTA-CADINENE Flower 0.63 - 0.84 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.12 ppm; DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

DIHYDROACTINIDIOLIDE Flower 0.02 - 0.1 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-ACETATE Flower 0.04 - 0.14 ppm DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Carminative DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 20-1,500 ARC ; Respirotoxic >400 ppm ARC ; Stimulant DUKE1992B

ETHYLBENZENE Flower 0.4 - 0.5 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Flower 63,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Plant 16,000 - 51,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 200,000 - 626,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Flower 93,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Plant 109,000 - 582,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 251,000 - 582,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

GAMMA-MUUROLENE Bud 0.06 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL Oil 26 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic PIL ; Anticancer; AntiCRP X17263473 ; Antiinflammatory; Antioxidant 10-15 ug/g JAF44:2096 IC43=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprostaglandin X17263473 ; Antitumor; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor X17263473 ; Hypocholesterolemic X17263473 ; Natriuretic X17263473 ; NO-Inhibitor; PKC-Inhibitor X17263473

GERMACRENE-D Leaf 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone DUKE1992B

HEXANAL Bud 0.06 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml; FLavor FEMA <1-5 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HEXANOL Bud 0.27 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 1.06 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; FLavor FEMA 0.2-25 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HEXYL-3-METHYL-BUTYRATE Bud 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HUMULENE Flower 1.6 - 2 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1.13 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=86 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial

IRON Flower 81 - 2,200 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 97 - 102 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOCARTHAMIN Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-GLYCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KILOCALORIES Seed 4,820 - 6,470 /kg DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LAURIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial TFLNO.86 ; Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Antiviral TFLNO.86 ; Candidicide X11600381 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100 JAF50:2231 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100 JAF50:2231 ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS

LIGNOCERIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic

LIMONENE Bud 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 122,000 - 481,394 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LINOLENIC-ACID Seed 5,200 - 16,276 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUTEOLIN-7-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

M-XYLENE Bud 0.12 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MAGNESIUM Flower 1,130 - 2,260 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Flower 31 - 53 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MATAIRESINOL-4-O-BETA-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MATAIRESINOSIDE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MERCURY Flower 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

Nephrotoxic PAM

METHYL-CINNAMATE Flower 0.08 ppm; DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 2-40 ARC ; Insecticide LAF ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MUCILAGE Flower: DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Demulcent PJB1(2):279 ; Hypocholesterolemic GAZ

MYRISTIC-ACID Seed 3,000 - 9,390 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

NEOCARTHAMIN Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NIACIN Seed 5 - 5.3 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NONANAL Flower 0.03 - 0.07 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.13 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

O-XYLENE Flower 0.5 - 0.11 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OLEIC-ACID Seed 11,000 - 206,580 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

P-CYMENE Bud 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-XYLENE Flower 0.5 - 0.24 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Seed 6,000 - 18,780 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PENT-1-EN-3-OL Flower 0.07 - 0.31 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENT-3-EN-2-ONE Bud 0.28 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENTANAL Leaf 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENTANOL Bud 0.13 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENOL Bud 0.04 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic M29 ; Anesthetic JE26:79 ; Antibacterial JE26:79 ; Antihemorrhoidal MAR ; Antihydrocoele M29 ; Antiincontinence M29 ; AntiMS M29 ; Antionychogryphotic MAR ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiprostatitic M29 ; Antipyruvetic JBH ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispastic MAR ; Antiviral M29 ; Antiwrinkle MAR ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; Emetic M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Hemolytic 5,400 ppm MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rodenticide LD50=1,040 cut rat AFR27:165 ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

PHENYL-ACETALDEHYDE Flower 1.22 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 0.07 ppm; DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 0.8-10 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

PHOSPHORUS Flower 2,370 ppm; DUKE1992A Plant 3,400 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 3,100 - 3,526 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

POTASSIUM Flower 14,000 - 22,400 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROTEIN Flower 148,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Plant 122,000 - 170,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 126,000 - 201,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Seed 1 - 2 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SAFFLOWER-YELLOW Flower 200,000 - 300,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SAFYNOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SD Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELENIUM Flower: DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

SEROTOBENINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SILICON Flower 47 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic DAS ; Antionychyotic PIL ; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective PIL

SODIUM Flower 2,320 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

STEARIC-ACID Seed 2,000 - 6,260 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

TERPINEN-4-OL Flower 0.01 - 0.1 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TETRACHELOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TETRADECENE Bud 0.08 - 3.1 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 3.66 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

THIAMIN Seed 5.9 - 6.2 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TIN Flower 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiacne DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Taenicide MAR

TRACHELOSIDE Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiestrogenic IC50=0.31 ug/ml X17090940 ; Antihypertensive DUKE1992B ; Cardiosedative DUKE1992B ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Respirainhibitor DUKE1992B ; Respirastimulant DUKE1992B

TRIDECA-1,3,5-TRIENE-7,9,11-TRIYNE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRIDECANE Bud 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

UBIQUINONE-9 Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VERBENONE Flower 0.16 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Coleopterifuge JAF45:3276 ; Insectifuge JAF45:3276 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

WATER Flower 901,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 48,000 - 50,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Flower 32 ppm; DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Safflower seeds

Commonsteps

References

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:165: Jim Duke's personal files

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARO95:16: Jim Duke's personal files

BBR216:198: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CD33:333: Jim Duke's personal files

CIB: CIBA (Chadwick, D.J. and Marsh, J. 1990. Bioactive Compounds from Plants. CIBA Foundation Symposium 154. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Chichester UK. 242 pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DIA: Soumyanath, A. Ed. 2006. Traditional Medicines for Modern Times - Antidiabetic Plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 314 pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT66:507: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:1245: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:1268: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1400: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:79: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R594: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):262: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):279: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TFLNO.86: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10563930: Jim Duke's personal files

X10701181: Jim Duke's personal files

X10823671: Jim Duke's personal files

X10826719: Jim Duke's personal files

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X17867636: Jim Duke's personal files

X18072821: Jim Duke's personal files

X180905647: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X7199340: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Mon Oct 26 16:59:31 EDT 2015