Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

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This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

Available on Amazon
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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. var. acephala DC (Brassicaceae) -- Curly Kale, Kale, Kitchen Kale, Scotch Kale



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. var. acephala DC (Brassicaceae) -- Curly Kale, Kale, Kitchen Kale, Scotch Kale



No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Allergenic; Antiamblyopic; Antidiuretic; Antiileus; Antitachycardic; Cardiodepressant; Cerebrostimulant; Histaminic; Hypotensive; Miotic; Myocontractant 2 uM; Myopic; Myotonic; Neurotransmitter; Parasympathomimetic 0.002 mg/kg ivn rat; Peristaltic; Sialogogue; Spasmogenic Antidote=600 ug atropine sulfate ivn ims scu hmn; Vasodilator

ALANINE Leaf 1,660 - 10,680 ppm

Antioxidant; Cancer-Preventive; Oxidant

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Leaf 359 - 785 ppm Stem 9 - 16 ppm

Antialzheimeran; Antianginal; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticancer; Anticataract; Anticonvulsant Synergen; Antidementia; Antidiabetic; Antiinfarctal; Antiinfertility; Antiischemic; Antimaculitic; Antimutagenic; Antineuropathic; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin IC34=10 uM; Antiparkinsonian; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin; Antiretinotic; Antirheumatic; Antistroke; Antitumor; Antitumor (Bladder); Antitumor (Prostate); Antitumor (Stomach); Antitumor-Promoter; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator

AMMONIA(NH3) Flower 15,260 ppm;

No activity reported.

ANILINE Leaf 0.7 ppm;

No activity reported.

ARACHIDONIC-ACID Leaf 20 - 130 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antidermatitic; Antieczemic; Antileukotriene-B4; Antipsoriatic; Cancer-Preventive; Coagulant; Hepatoprotective; Immunostimulant; Insulinogenic; Myocontractant; Pyrogenic 100 ug/kg rbt

ARGININE Leaf 1,840 - 11,840 ppm

Antidiabetic?; Antiencephalopathic; Antihepatitic; Antihypertensive; Antiimpotence; Antiinfertility 4 g/day; Antioxidant?; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic; Hypoammonemic; NO-Genic; Pituitary-Stimulant; Spermigenic 4 g/day; Vasodilator

ASCORBIC-ACID Leaf 1,200 - 7,720 ppm

Acidulant FEMA 6,000; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day; Antiaggregant; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day 400 mg/day; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day; Antidementia; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day; Antidiabetic; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Cadmium); Antidote (Lead); Antidote (Paraquat); Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day; Antiencephalitic; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day; Antigastritic; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day; Antihangover 1,000 mg; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive; Antiinfertility 1 g/day; Antiinflammatory; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day; Antimigraine; Antimutagenic; Antineuramidase; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day; Antiorchitic; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day; Antipneumonic; Antipodriac; Antipoliomyelitic; Antipyretic; Antiradicular; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day; Antiretinotic; Antirheumatic; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml; Antishingles; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day; Antitumor (Gastric); Antitumor (Lung); Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man; Calcium-Antagonist; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day; Collagenic; Detoxicant; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl; Fistula-Preventive; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Interferonogenic; Lithogenic; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day; Pesticide; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day; Urinary-Acidulant; Vasodilator; Vulnerary

ASH Leaf 15,000 - 98,500 ppm

No activity reported.

ASPARTIC-ACID Leaf 2,950 - 18,985 ppm

Antimorphinic; Neuroexcitant; Roborant

BENZYL-AMINE Leaf 3.8 ppm;

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Leaf 50 - 345 ppm

Allergenic; Androgenic?; Antiacne; Antiaging; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic; Anticervicaldysplasic; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant; Antiozenic; Antipapillomic; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day; Antipityriasic; AntiPMS; Antiporphyric; Antiproliferant; Antipsoriac; Antiradicular; Antirheumatic; Antistress; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml; Antitumor (Prostate); Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl 15,000-25,000 IU/day; Antixerophthalmic; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm; Chemopreventive; Colorant; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml; Gastroprotective; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl; Interferon-Synergist; Mucogenic; Phagocytotic; Prooxidant 20 ug/g; Thymoprotective; Ubiquiot

CALCIUM Leaf 1,200 - 7,725 ppm

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day; Antidepressant; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Lead); Antihyperkinetic; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day; Antitic; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day; Hypotensive 1 g/day; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day; Vasodilator

CARBOHYDRATES Leaf 100,000 - 644,000 ppm

No activity reported.


Allergenic; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticalculic; Anticoagulant; Antileishmanic; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant Synergist; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Antitubercular; Antitumor; Disinfectant; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400; Hemostat; Irritant; Laxative?; Litholytic; Mycobactericide; Odontolytic; Refrigerant

COPPER Leaf 3 - 20 ppm

Antianemic; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory; Antinociceptive; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective; Contraceptive; Hypocholesterolemic; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic

CYSTINE Leaf 440 - 2,830 ppm

Adjuvant; Antihomocystinuric

DIMETHYL-AMINE Leaf 5.5 ppm;

Coleoptophile; Pesticide

FAT Leaf 7,000 - 45,050 ppm

No activity reported.

FIBER Leaf 15,000 - 96,500 ppm

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; Antidiabetic; Antihypertensive; Antiobesity; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Beta-Blocker; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl; Hypouricemic; Laxative; Vasodilator

FOLACIN Leaf 0.3 - 2 ppm

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl; Anticheilitic; Antidepressant; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man; Antiglossitic; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man; Antineuropathic; Antiperiodontitic; Antiplaque; Antipsychotic; AntiSpina-Bifida; Hematopoietic; Uricosuric; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor


Acidulant; Antidermatitic; Antihepatocarcinogenic IC100=1% (diet); Antioxidant; Antipsoriac; Antitumor; FLavor FEMA 50-3,600


Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 15 uM


Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 15 uM



GLUTAMIC-ACID Leaf 3,740 - 24,065 ppm

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man; Antiepileptic; Antihyperammonemic; Antilithic; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day; Antiretardation; Anxiolytic; Neurotoxic

GLYCINE Leaf 1,590 - 10,232 ppm

Antiacid; Antialdosteronic; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A); Antiencephalopathic; Antigastritic; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day; Antipruritic; Antisickling; Antiulcer; Cancer-Preventive; Neuroinhibitor; Uricosuric

HISTIDINE Leaf 690 - 4,440 ppm

Antiarteriosclerotic; Antinephritic; Antioxidant; Antiulcer; Antiuremic; Essential; Oxidant


Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Phytohormone


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

IRON Leaf 15 - 110 ppm

Antiakathisic; Antianemic; Anticanker; Anticheilitic; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl; Prooxidant

ISOLEUCINE Leaf 1,970 - 12,675 ppm

Antiencephalopathic?; Antipellagric; Essential


No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL Leaf 13 ppm;

11B-HSD-Inhibitor; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm IC50=8.73 uM; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml; Antihistaminic; Antiimplantation; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg 200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml; Antilymphocytic; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin IC50=1.2 ug/ml IC50=40 uM; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml; Antiplaque; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Choleretic; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic; Diaphoretic?; Diuretic; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l EC50=0.56 uM; Fungicide 20 ug/ml; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm IC50=5.46 uM; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml; Hypotensive; ICAM-1-Inhibitor; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM IC50=<15 uM; Inotropic; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor; JNK-Inhibitor; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; MAO-Inhibitor; Mutagenic; Natriuretic; Neuroprotective; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM; PAF-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Protisticide; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l; Vasodilator

KILOCALORIES Leaf 500 - 3,220 /kg

No activity reported.

LAURIC-ACID Leaf 20 - 130 ppm

Antibacterial; Antioxidant IC71=60; Antiviral; Candidicide; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100; Hypercholesterolemic

LEUCINE Leaf 2,310 - 14,865 ppm

Antiencephalopathic; Essential

LINOLEIC-ACID Leaf 1,380 - 8,880 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne; Antialopecic; Antianaphylactic; Antiandrogenic; Antiarteriosclerotic; Antiarthritic; Anticoronary; Antieczemic; Antifibrinolytic; Antigranular; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Antimenorrhagic; AntiMS; Antiprostatitic; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Comedolytic; Hepatoprotective; Hypocholesterolemic; Immunomodulator; Insectifuge; Metastatic; Nematicide; Propecic

LINOLENIC-ACID Leaf 1,800 - 11,585 ppm

No activity reported.

LYSINE Leaf 1,970 - 12,675 ppm

Antialkalotic; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg

MAGNESIUM Leaf 340 - 2,190 ppm

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic; Antianginal; Antianorectic; Antianxiety; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic; AntiCFS; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant; Anticoronary 400 mg/day; Antidepressant; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day; Antienterotic; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic; Antiglaucomic; Antihyperkinetic; Antihypertensive; Antihypoglycemic; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilithic; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man; Antimitral-valve-prolapse; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day; Antispasmodic; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day; Antistress 500-750 mg/day; Antistroke 400 mg/day; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective; CNS-Depressant; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day; Vasodilator


Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day; Antioxidant Synergist; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Antitubercular; Antitumor; Bacteristat; Bruchiphobe; Hemopoietic; Laxative?; Mycobactericide; Pesticide; Sialogogue

MANGANESE Leaf 8 - 50 ppm

Antialcoholic; Antianemic; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day; Antidiscotic; Antidyskinetic; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic; Antioxidant; AntiPMS; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day; Hypoglycemic

METHIONINE Leaf 320 - 2,060 ppm

Anticataract; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl; Antidote (Paracetamol); Antieczemic; Antihepatotic; Antioxidant; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day; Cancer-Preventive; Emetic; Essential; Glutathionigenic; Hepatoprotective; Lipotropic; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl; Urine-Deodorant

METHYL-AMINE Leaf 16.6 ppm;


MUFA Leaf 520 - 3,345 ppm

Allergenic; Anemiagenic; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic 5 ml/man; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 1-30; Hypocholesterolemic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Percutaneostimulant; Perfumery

MYRISTIC-ACID Leaf 30 - 190 ppm

Antioxidant IC71=60; Cancer-Preventive; Cosmetic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide

N-BUTYL-AMINE Leaf 0.5 ppm;

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

N-PENTYL-AMINE Leaf 0.4 ppm;

No activity reported.

NIACIN Leaf 10 - 65 ppm

Allergenic; Antiacrodynic; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day; Antialzheimeran; Antiamblyopic; Antianginal; Anticataract; Antichilblain; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day; Antidementia; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antidysphagic; Antiepileptic; Antihangover 50 mg; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's; Antineuralgic; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day; Antipellagric; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day; Antiscotomic; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day; Antivertigo; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Fibrinolytic; Hepatoprotective; Hepatotoxic; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic; Sedative; Serotoninergic; Vasodilator

OLEIC-ACID Leaf 490 - 3,155 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Anemiagenic; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic 5 ml/man; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 1-30; Hypocholesterolemic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Percutaneostimulant; Perfumery; Propecic

PALMITIC-ACID Leaf 760 - 4,890 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antifibrinolytic; Antioxidant IC40=60; FLavor FEMA 1; Hemolytic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide; Pesticide; Propecic; Soap

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Leaf 10 - 65 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Soap


Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic; Anticlaudificant?; Antidermatitic; Antifatigue; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal; Antiielus?; Antiinsomniac?; Antirheumatitic?; Cancer-Preventive


Insectifuge; Irritant; Pesticide

PHOSPHORUS Leaf 560 - 3,600 ppm

Antiosteoporotic; Anxiolytic; Immunostimulant; Osteogenic

POTASSIUM Leaf 4,270 - 30,000 ppm

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; Antiarrhythmic; Antidepressant; Antifatigue; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic; Antistroke; Anxiolytic; Beta-Blocker; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day; Diuretic; Hypotensive; Vasodilator


Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 15 uM

PROLINE Leaf 1,960 - 12,610 ppm

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Leaf 33,000 - 212,350 ppm

No activity reported.

PUFA Leaf 3,380 - 21,750 ppm

Antiacne; Antieczemic; AntiMS; Antipolyneuritic

QUERCETIN Leaf 7 - 50 ppm

11B-HSD-Inhibitor; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml IC50=0.344 uM IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM; Allergenic; Analgesic; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM IC50=7.5 ppm; Antiaggregant 30 uM IC50=55 uM; Antiaging; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM; Antialzheimeran; Antianaphylactic; Antiangiogenic; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml; Anticataract; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day; Anticomplementary; AntiCrohn's; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks; Antidepressant; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml; Antiencephalitic; Antiescherichic; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet; Antifibrosarcomic; Antiflu; Antigastric; Antigonadotropic; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV; Antihydrophobic; Antihypertensive; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg; Antileishmanic IC50=64; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM IC50=10 uM IC50=>10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml ID50=2-5 nM; Antimyocarditic; Antinitrosaminic; Antinociceptive; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E ED50=2.3 uM IC47=10 uM IC96=300 ppm; Antipancreatitic; Antiperiodontal; Antiperistaltic; Antipermeability; Antiperoxidant; Antipharyngitic; Antiplaque; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn; Antipodriac; Antipolio; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid; Antiprostatitic; Antipsoriac; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml; Antithiamin; Antithrombic; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder); Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary); Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml IC50=10 uM; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml; Bradycardiac; Calmodulin-Antagonist; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Capillariprotective; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus; Catabolic; COMT-Inhibitor; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml IC82=100 ug/ml; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Diaphoretic?; Differentiator 5.5 uM; Estrogenic 10% genistein; Fungicide; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat; Hepatoprotective; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic; Insulinogenic; Juvabional; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM IC50=0.1-5 uM; MAO-A-Inhibitor; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer; Metal-Chelator (Copper); Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM; Mutagenic; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM IC>50=125 uM; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM; Pesticide; PGE2-Inhibitor; Phospholipase-Inhibitor; Plasmodicide; Proliferant; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM; Teratologic; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM IC50=10.6 ug/ml IC50=>0.4 ug/ml



RIBOFLAVIN Leaf 1 - 8 ppm

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day; Anticataract 15 mg/day; Anticephalagic; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day; Anticheilitic; Antidecubitic; Antiglossitic; Antikeratitic; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; Antimigraine; Antioxidant; Antipellagric; Antiphotophobic; Cancer-Preventive

SERINE Leaf 1,390 - 8,945 ppm


SFA Leaf 910 - 5,855 ppm

No activity reported.


Antifeedant; Cancer-Preventive; Larvicide; Mutagenic; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 15 uM

SODIUM Leaf 290 - 3,650 ppm


STEARIC-ACID Leaf 40 - 260 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Cosmetic; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000; Hypocholesterolemic; Lubricant; Perfumery; Propecic; Suppository


Additive FEMA 200-2,000; Antifeedant; Bruchiphobe; Cancer-Preventive; Dye; Perfumery; Pesticide

THIAMIN Leaf 1 - 7 ppm

Analgesic 1-4 g/day; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day; Antianorectic; Antibackache 1-4 g/day; Antiberiberi; Anticanker; Anticardiospasmic; Anticataract; Anticolitic; Antidecubitic; Antideliriant; Antidementia; Antidyspeptic; Antiencephalopathic; Antifatigue; Antigastritic; Antihangover 50 mg; Antiheartburn; Antiherpetic; AntiLyme; Antimigraine; Antimyocarditic; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day; Antineurasthenic; Antineuritic; Antineuropathic 50 mg; Antipoliomyelitic; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day; Neuroprotective; Pesticide

THREONINE Leaf 1,470 - 9,460 ppm

Antioxidant?; Antiulcer; Essential; FLavor FEMA 1,000

TOLUIDENE Leaf 1.1 ppm;

No activity reported.

TRYPTOPHAN Leaf 400 - 2,575 ppm

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal; Antidementia 3 g/day; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl; Antimenopausal 6 g/day; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day; Antiphenylketonuric; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day; Antirheumatic; Antiscoliotic; Carcinogenic; Essential; Hypnotic; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive 3 g/day; Insulinase-Inhibitor; Insulinotonic; Monoamine-Precursor; Prolactinogenic; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man; Tumor-Promoter

TYROSINE Leaf 1,170 - 7,530 ppm

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day; Antiphenylketonuric; Antiulcer 256 mg scu 400 mg/kg ipr rat; Cancer-Preventive; Monoamine-Precursor

VALINE Leaf 1,810 - 11,645 ppm

Antiencephalopathic; Essential; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000

VIT-B-6 Leaf 3 - 17 ppm

No activity reported.

WATER Leaf 839,000 - 850,000 ppm

No activity reported.

ZINC Leaf 4 - 28 ppm

ACE-Inhibitor; Analgesic; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day; Antiangiogenic; Antianorexic; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day; Anticataract 30 mg/day; Anticoeliac; Anticold 50 mg; Anticolitic; Anticoronary 30 mg/day; AntiCrohn's; Antidandruff; Antidementia; Antidiabetic; Antidote (Cadmium); Antidysgeuzic; Antieczemic 150 mg/day; Antiencephalopathic; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day; Antifibrotic 30 mg; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man; Antihangover 15 mg; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV; Antiimpotence; Antiinfective 50 mg/day; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilepric; Antileukonychic; Antilymphomic; Antimaculitic; Antimetastatic; Antineuropathic; Antinyctalopic; Antiobesity 30 mg/day; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic; Antiplaque; Antiprolactin; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl; Antirheumatic; Antiseptic 50 mg/day; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man 88 mg/rat/day/15 days; Antiviral?; Astringent; Collagenic; Copper-Antagonist; Deodorant; Detoxicant (Alcohol); Ergogenic; Hypotensive 30 mg/day; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day; Mucogenic; NF-kB-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Spermigenic 60 mg/day; Testosteronigenic; Trichomonicide; Vulnerary

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace


Mon Oct 26 10:59:14 EDT 2015

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