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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) -- Giant Reed

Identifier

019476

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) -- Giant Reed


Chemicals

2-O-(4-O-METHYL-ALPHA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE-URONIC-A.)-D-XYLOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,3'-BIS(INDOLYL-METHYL)-DIMETHYL-AMMONIUM-HYDROXIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-METHOXY-N-METHYLTRYPTAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALKALOIDS Plant 5,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-AMYRIN-ACETATE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory FT68:9 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401

ASH Plant 92,000 - 150,000 ppm DUKE1992A Stem 42,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-AMYRIN-ACETATE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory FT68:9 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant DUKE1992B

BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BUFOTENIDINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Hypotensive FT.NO.6:1984

BUFOTENINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran? DUKE1992B ; Anticholinesterase 1/30th physostigmine MPI ; Aphrodisiac HDN ; Cardiovascular 0.1 ipr rat BBE ; CNS-Active 5 ipr rat BBE ; Hallucinogenic M11 ; Hypertensive JBH ; Mydriatic JBH ; Respiraparalytic HDN ; Serotoninergic M29

CALCIUM Plant 4,900 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPESTEROL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC37=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAD

CARBOHYDRATES Plant 699,000 - 777,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CELLULOSE Stem 446,000 - 503,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Hemostat M29

DEHYDROBUFOTENINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DONAXARIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DONAXERINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Insecticide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

DONAXINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ELEAGNINE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Plant 11,000 - 13,000 ppm DUKE1992A Stem 30,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Plant 285,000 - 375,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLAVONE-C-GLYCOSIDES Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRIEDELIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory 30 mg/kg DUKE1992B ; Diuretic JBH

GALACTOSE Stem: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GLUCOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUCURONIC-ACID Stem: DUKE1992A

Antidote (Camphor) PJB1(3):241 ; Antidote (Morphine) PJB1(3):241 ; Antihepatotoxic PJB1(3):241 ; Detoxicant M11

GRAMINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiarrhythmic CFN ; Antifeedant PC20(2):465 ; Insecticide IC50=4 mM 438 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

GRAMINE-METHOHYDROXIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GRAMINE-N-OXIDE Plant 700 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-ARABINO-D-GLUCURONO-D-XYLAN Stem: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-ARABINOSE Stem: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIGNIN Stem 157,000 - 227,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticancer AFR27:209 ; Anticoronary AFR27:209 ; Antidiarrheic M29 ; AntiHIV DUKE1992B ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:209 ; Antioxidant AFR27:209 ; Antitumor AFR27:209 ; Antiviral CPB38:3033 ; Chelator AFR27:209 ; Hypocholesterolemic AFR27:209 ; Laxative AFR27:209 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

LUPEOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiangiogenic 30-50 ug/ml PR4:341 ; AntiEBV JNP65:645 ; Antiedemic PM60:516 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; Antihyperglycemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 Indomethacin PM60:516 ; Antilithic 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antimalarial IC50=46.8 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antioxalate 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antioxidant FT67:121 ; Antiperoxidant FT67:121 ; Antiprostaglandin X11732756 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiurethrotic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JNP67:344 ; Cytotoxic 50-500 ppm DUKE1992B ; FPTase-Inhibitor IC50=65 ug/ml JNP59:658 ; Hypotensive JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor IC50=10.4 uM JNP64:1545

N,N-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N,N-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE-METHOHYDROXIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENTOSANS Stem 251,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Plant 1,100 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

POTASSIUM Plant 25,500 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROTEIN Plant 69,000 - 132,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RESIN Stem: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

STIGMASTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

TRIACONTANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRIACONTANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidermatitic? LRN-APR88 ; Antiherpetic? LRN-APR88 ; Antiinflammatory? LRN-APR88

TRICIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JBH ; Anticariogenic WO2 ; Antileukemic 6-12 mg/kg ACM:360 ; Antioxidant DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Catabolic AFS27:173 ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B ; Herbistat JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

XYLOSE Stem: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic; Diagnostic MAR ; Dye M11

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Arundo donax

Commonsteps

References

356: Grainge, M. and Ahmed, S., Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1988, 470. Note: Author list various compounds as active principle, thus leading me to enter all the aconitine alkaloids, e.g, as insecticidal, though authors do not specifically say that all are insecticidal.

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:360: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:209: Jim Duke's personal files

AFS27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

CFN: Cardiology from Nature.(by Authur Hollman, s.d.) Telectronics Pacing System, London. 13 pp.

CPB38:3033: Jim Duke's personal files

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

FT.NO.6:1984: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:121: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68:9: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:658: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:645: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:344: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-APR88: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MPI: =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp Note: (2 vols so far).

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC20(2):465: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):241: Jim Duke's personal files

PM60:516: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:341: Jim Duke's personal files

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WO2: Wealth of India.

X11732756: Jim Duke's personal files

X11988857: Jim Duke's personal files

X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

X17350814: Jim Duke's personal files

X17358014: Jim Duke's personal files

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace