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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) -- Cashew

Identifier

021243

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) -- Cashew


Chemicals

4-O-METHYL-GLUCURONIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANINE Seed 7,020 - 7,141 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALPHA-CATECHIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID Seed 1,610 - 1,638 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Antiaggregant FIH ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=42 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; Antimetastatic FIH ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive FIH ; Immunostimulant 0.12 ml/man/day FIH ; Lymphocytogenic 0.5 ug/ml FIH ; Propecic X10830511 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 39.5 g/day/hmn ARS:451 ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ALUMINUM Seed 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ANACARDIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiacne X11368634 ; Antibacterial 411 ; Antiprostaglandin JBH ; Antiseptic X11368634 ; Antithrombotic CAN ; Antitumor; Aphicide? ABS2 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Fungicide 411 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor X11368634 ; Molluscicide <10 ppm DUKE1992B ; Nematicide DUKE1992B ; Pesticide PC29:1815 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor X11368634 ; Protisticide 411 ; Schistosomicide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor X11368634

ANACARDOL Seed: DUKE1992A

Antitumor DUKE1992B

ANTIMONY Seed 0.3 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARABINOSE Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGININE Seed 17,410 - 17,711 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ARSENIC Seed 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 252 - 17,500 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 890 - 2,957 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 20 - 21 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Fruit 2,000 - 28,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 12,000 - 40,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 26,000 - 32,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARTIC-ACID Seed 15,050 - 15,310 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

BARIUM Seed 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BENZALDEHYDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R594 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial LAF337 ; Anticancer ARO95:16 ; Antimutagenic X10563930 ; Antipeptic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor ARO95:16 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 150-800 ARC ; Immunostimulant ARO95:16 ; Insecticide LAF ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Narcotic M11 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g X11879008 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.82 mM JAF47:4574 ID50=820 uM ID50=830 uM JAF50:1400 ID50=87 ug/ml JAF46:1268

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 7.6 - 53 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 6 - 20 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 0.6 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-SITOSTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BORON Seed 3.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

BROMINE Seed 1.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CADMIUM Seed 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive PAM ; Lithogenic PAM ; Nephrotoxic PAM

CALCIUM Fruit 100 - 833 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 240 - 823 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAPRIC-ACID Seed 1,320 - 1,343 ppm DUKE1992A

Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAPRYLIC-ACID Seed 1,320 - 1,343 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAR-3-ENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARBOHYDRATES Fruit 116,000 - 958,678 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 231,000 - 767,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 294,000 - 432,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARDANOL Seed: DUKE1992A

Antithrombotic CAN ; Molluscicide ED=80->100 DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CARDOL Bark: DUKE1992A

Antifilarial IJP52:271 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC28-98=10 uM DFN:162 ; Molluscicide ED=7-15 ppm DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CESIUM Seed 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHLORINE Seed 184 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial M29 ; Antiherpetic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antiviral M29 ; Candidicide M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHROMIUM Seed 0.3 ppm; DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

COBALT Seed 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Seed 22 - 37 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CYSTINE Seed 2,830 - 2,879 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

EUROPIUM Seed 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Fruit 1,000 - 49,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 6,000 - 20,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 370,000 - 482,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Fruit 6,000 - 42,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 7,120 - 29,000 ppm CRC JAD USA

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLUORINE Seed 1.4 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FOLACIN Seed 0.7 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl PAM ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man PAM ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antineuropathic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antipsychotic M29 ; AntiSpina-Bifida DAS ; Hematopoietic M11 ; Uricosuric PAM ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PAM

GADOLEIC-ACID Seed 1,390 - 1,414 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GALACTOSE Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GALLIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=7.7 mM/l; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiadenovirus EMP5:194 ; Antiallergenic IAA94:262 ; Antianaphylactic JBH ; Antiangiogenic X15884816 ; Antiasthmatic W&B ; Antibacterial MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antibronchitic IAA94:262 ; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic ED50=3 DUKE1992B ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antiflu EMP5:194 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiherpetic EC50=>10 ug/ml PCF:180 ; AntiHIV PCF:180 ; Antiinflammatory PM58(6):499 ; Antileishmanic EC50=4.4 ug/ml PR15:122 ; AntiMRSA X9145218 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:217 ; Antioxidant 2/3 BHA JAF50:889 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC44=33 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontitic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=69 uM; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiproteolytic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=4.9 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic BO2 ; Astringent 411 ; Bacteristat PR4(5):198 ; Bronchodilator JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Cytotoxic 500 uM JAF50:850 ; Floral-Inhibitor JBH ; Gram(+)icide MIC=1,000 ug/ml JE42:95 ; Gram(-)icide JE42:95 ; Hemostat JE26:83 ; Hepatoprotective HDN ; Immunomodulator PR15:122 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Immunosuppressant; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Nephrotoxic M29 ; NO-Inhibitor IC-26=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor BPB20:1017 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=24 uM CPB38:1225

GINGKOL Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUCURONIC-ACID Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Antidote (Camphor) PJB1(3):241 ; Antidote (Morphine) PJB1(3):241 ; Antihepatotoxic PJB1(3):241 ; Detoxicant M11

GLUTAMIC-ACID Seed 36,240 - 36,867 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLYCINE Seed 8,030 - 8,169 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

GOLD Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiarthritic DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer MAR ; Nephrotoxic DUKE1992B

HAFNIUM Seed 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXANAL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml; FLavor FEMA <1-5 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HISTIDINE Seed 3,990 - 4,059 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

HYDROXYBENZOIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IODINE Seed 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acnegenic DAS ; Antibacterial AHP146 ; Antigoiter DAS ; Antiseptic AHP146 ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Antiviral AHP146 ; Dermatitigenic DAS ; Fungicide AHP146 ; Goitrogenic DAS ; Hyperthyroid >1 mm/day/diet AHP146 ; Protisticide AHP146 ; Thyrotropic DAS

IRON Fruit 2 - 77 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 18 - 195 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOLEUCINE Seed 7,310 - 7,436 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

KAEMPFEROL-GLYCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KILOCALORIES Fruit 530 - 3,680 /kg DUKE1992A Leaf 1,000 - 3,320 /kg DUKE1992A Seed 5,330 - 5,920 /kg DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-EPICATECHIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LANTHANUM Seed 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LAURIC-ACID Seed 7,840 - 7,975 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial TFLNO.86 ; Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Antiviral TFLNO.86 ; Candidicide X11600381 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100 JAF50:2231 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100 JAF50:2231 ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS

LEAD Seed 0.3 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Seed 12,850 - 13,072 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LEUCOCYANIDIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Capillariprotective M11

LEUCOPELARGONIDINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 76,600 - 77,925 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LUTETIUM Seed 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LYSINE Seed 8,170 - 8,311 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Seed 260 - 2,650 ppm FUR JAD USA

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Seed 8.4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MANNOSE Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

Antiadhesive; Anticystitic 0.25-1 tsp 3-4 x/day orl man A&C3:269 ; AntiUTI PIL

MERCURY Seed 0.01 ppm; DUKE1992A

Nephrotoxic PAM

METHIONINE Seed 2,740 - 2,787 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

MOLYBDENUM Seed 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Esophagus)? DAS ; Antitumor (Esophagus)? DAS

MUFA Seed 273,170 - 286,115 ppm JAD USA

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

MYRISTIC-ACID Seed 3,470 - 3,530 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

NARINGENIN Seed: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 1 ug/ml PM56(3):254 100 uM JBC8:211 IC25=1 uM PC23:1885 IC78=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase X14739537 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=12 uM X11714299 IC50=3.37 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antialzheimeran JAF52:1520 ; Antiamnesic JAF52:1520 ; Antiamyloid-Beta JAF52:1520 ; Antibacterial MIC=250-500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifibrotic X14709902 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic EMP5:197 ; AntiHIV IC35=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory 20 ppm JNP39:426 ; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antimutagenic ID50=50-100 nM PCF:13 ; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiperoxidative JBH ; Antiradicular JAF47:397 ; Antisindhis IC50=15 ug/ml X12520185 ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Antistaphylococcic X10857921 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer FT5:1990 ; Antiviral; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC45=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JBH ; Embryotoxic X14667474 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l; Fungicide 2.5 mM; Fungistat PC29(4):1103 ; Hepatoprotective IC50=12 uM X11714299 IC50=3.37 ppm X11714299 ; Neuroprotective JAF52:1520 ; P450-Inhibitor X9178939 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Serotonin-Inhibitor JBH ; Teratogenic X14667474 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.41 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227

NIACIN Fruit 3 - 21 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 14 - 46 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 18 - 22 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICAIN Fruit 3 - 21 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NICKEL Seed 5 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

OLEIC-ACID Seed 268,080 - 296,000 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

OXALIC-ACID Seed 3,184 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

PALMITIC-ACID Seed 34,600 - 44,262 ppm JAD USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Seed 1,690 - 3,235 ppm JAD USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Seed 12 - 13 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PHENYLALANINE Seed 7,910 - 8,046 ppm DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 100 - 3,125 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 3,730 - 6,255 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PHYTOSTEROLS Seed 1,580 - 1,607 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic MPP

POTASSIUM Seed 4,600 - 6,815 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROLINE Seed 6,900 - 7,019 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Fruit 2,000 - 69,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 52,000 - 173,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 152,000 - 188,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PRUNIN-6''-O-P-COUMARATE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PUFA Seed 78,360 - 83,555 ppm JAD USA

Antiacne MAR ; Antieczemic MAR ; AntiMS MAR ; Antipolyneuritic MAR

QUERCETIN-GLYCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RHAMNOSE Resin, Exudate, Sap: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 2.4 - 16.7 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.1 - 0.3 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2 - 3.3 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RUBIDIUM Seed 35 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SALICYLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 724.6 uM PR7:252 ; Analgesic; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antidermatotic DUKE1992B ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antiichthyosic M29 ; Antiinflammatory PHZ46:156 ; Antineuralgic MAD ; Antioncychomycotic M29 ; Antioxidant KCH ; Antiperiodic DUKE1992B ; Antipodagric DUKE1992B ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic PJB1(2):285 ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic ALH ; Antitumor PCF:49 ; Antitympanitic M11 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Comedolytic M29 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX2000 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Fungicide MIC 1,000 ug/ml FFJ11:257 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:158 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Keratolytic JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Thermogenic 130 ppm SCI237:1601 ; Tineacide M29 ; Ulcerogenic DUKE1992B

SAMARIUM Seed 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SCANDIUM Seed 0.002 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELENIUM Seed 0.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

SERINE Seed 8,490 - 8,637 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525

SFA Seed 52,325 - 93,154 ppm JAD USA

No activity reported.

SILICON Seed 1,280 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic DAS ; Antionychyotic PIL ; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective PIL

SODIUM Seed 140 - 257 ppm CRC FUR JAD

Hypertensive DAS

SQUALENE Seed: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial JBH ; Antioxidant JAF47(10):4025 ; Antitumor JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive JAF47(10):4025 ; Immunostimulant JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor CE7:297 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen JAF47(10):4025

STEARIC-ACID Seed 17,725 - 102,000 ppm HHB JAD USA

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

STRONTIUM Seed 4.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SULFUR Seed 4,800 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acarifuge DUKE1992B ; Antiacne M29 ; Antiarthritic WER ; Antidandruff M29 ; Antigrey M29 ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiseborrheic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Comedogenic M29 ; Keratolytic M29 ; Laxative M29 ; Parasiticide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Scabicide M29

TANNIN Bark 90,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

TANTALUM Seed 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

THIAMIN Fruit 0.3 - 2.1 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.1 - 0.3 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2 - 8.7 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THORIUM Seed 0.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

THREONINE Seed 5,920 - 6,022 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

TIN Seed 0.9 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiacne DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Taenicide MAR

TITANIUM Seed 2.4 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TOCOPHEROL Seed 8 ppm; JAD

5-HETE-Inhibitor BO2 ; Allergenic NAH19(9):4 ; Analgesic 100 IU 3 x day WER ; Antiaggregant MAR ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antialzheimeran 2,000 IU SYN-X ; Antianginal 1,067 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiarteriosclerotic DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic PAM ; Antibronchitic DUKE1992B ; Anticancer (Breast) IC50=125 ug/ml JN:1997 ; Anticariogenic JD23:101 ; Anticataract PIL ; Antichorea DUKE1992B ; Antichoreic DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Anticoronary 100-200 IU/day; Antidecubitic DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic PJB1(3):250 ; Antidiabetic 600-1,200 mg/day EMP6:164 ; Antidysmenorrheic DAS ; Antiepitheleomic PCF:20 ; Antifibrositic MAR ; Antiglycosation SYN-X ; Antiherpetic MAR ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiinflammatory SYN- ; Antiischemic JE29:31 ; Antileukemic 100-250 uM BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilithic 600 mg/day WER ; Antilupus DUKE1992B ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimastalgic DAS ; AntiMD DUKE1992B ; Antimelanomic DUKE1992B ; AntiMS DUKE1992B ; Antimyoclonic PAM ; Antineuritic M29 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:20 ; Antiophthalmic DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic DAS ; Antioxidant IC36=10 uM JMF5:1 IC50=30 ug/ml CPB38:1051 IC95=650 uM PM56(6):678 ; Antiparkinsonian ARN45:1350 ; AntiPMS 300 IU 2 x day; Antiproliferant IC50=150 ug/ml JN:1997 ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antiretinopathic? M29 ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antisenility PJB1(3):250 ; Antisickling MAR ; Antispasmodic 300 mg/man/day MAR ; Antisterility PJB1(3):250 ; Antistroke DAS ; Antisunburn NAH18(9):4 ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antithalassemic DAS ; Antithrombotic 600 IU/day WER ; Antithromboxane-B2 SYN-X ; Antitoxemic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor 7 uM ckn PCF:19 ; Antitumor (Breast) 100-250 uM BO2 IC50=125 ug/ml SYN-X ; Antitumor (Colorectal) 500-10,000 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) 100-250 uM; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic 67 mg/man/3 x/day/orl; Apoptotic 100-250 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cerebroprotective KCH ; Circulatory-Stimulant DAS ; Circulotonic; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 100-450 IU/man/day; Hypoglycemic 600 IU/man/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 60-800 IU; Insulin-Sparing 1,000 IU WER ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor PAM ; NO-Inhibitor PIL ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor 400 mg/kg BO2 ; P21-Inducer 500-10,000 uM BO2 ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor BO2 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor 10-50 uM BO2 IC50=450 uM BO2 ; Vasodilator SYN-X

TRANS-HEX-2-ENAL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRYPTOPHAN Seed 2,370 - 2,411 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

TUNGSTEN Seed 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TYROSINE Seed 4,910 - 4,995 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

URONIC-ANHYDRIDE Resin, Exudate, Sap 57,000 - 62,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VALINE Seed 10,400 - 10,580 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

VANADIUM Seed 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic DAS ; Antidiabetic ?25-100 ug/man/day? SYN-X ; Antiinfertility DAS ; Antiinsulinogenic SYN-X ; Antimanic DAS ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; ATPase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive?; Cardioprotective? DAS ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Hypotriglyceridemic SYN-X ; Nephrotoxic SYN-X ; Pancreatoxic SYN-X ; Toxic SYN-X

VIT-B-6 Seed 2 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WATER Fruit 856,000 - 879,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 699,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Resin, Exudate, Sap 79,000 - 95,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 27,000 - 52,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

XYLOSE Gum: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic; Diagnostic MAR ; Dye M11

YTTERBIUM Seed 0.02 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Seed 48 - 57 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Cashews

Commonsteps

References

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

A&C3:269: Jim Duke's personal files

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ABS2: Chau (1985) in Purseglove et al. Acta Botanica Sinica, 2.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:217: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP146: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARN45:1350: Jim Duke's personal files

ARO95:16: Jim Duke's personal files

ARS:451: Ferretti, A., Flanagan, V. P. 1996. Antithromboxane Activity of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid: A Pilot Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 54(6): 451-455. ARS, USDA.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB20:1017: Hamada, S. I., Kataoka, T., Woo, J. T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. 1997. Immunosuppressive Effects by Gallic Acid and Chebulagic Acid on CTL-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull, 20: 1017-1019.

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CE7:297: Chemical Express, 7: 297, 1992.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

COX2000: Newmark, T. M. and Schulick, P. 2000. Herbal Cox-2 Inhibition - Nature's Challenge to Arthritis, Cancer & Alzheimer's Disease. Hohm Press, Prescott AZ.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:162: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:158: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 158.

EMP6:164: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FFJ11:257: Jim Duke's personal files

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIH: Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(2):185: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FUR: Furr, A.K., et al. 1979

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IAA94:262: Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.

IJP52:271: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:1268: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47(10):4025: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1400: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:1520: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JD23:101: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:83: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE29:31: Jim Duke's personal files

JE42:95: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN:1997: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:426: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R594: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NAH18(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files

NAH19(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(4):1103: Weidenborner, M., Hindorf, H., Jha, H.C., and Tsotsonos, P. 1989. Antifungal Activity of Flavonoids Against Storage Fungi of the Genus Aspergillus. Phytochemistry. 29(4): 1103-1105.

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29:1815: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:13: Maga, J.A. Contribution of Phenolic Compounds to Smoke Flavor. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.13.

PCF:180: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:20: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):285: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):241: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):250: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(3):254: Aida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.

PM56(6):678: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM58(6):499: Kroes, B.H., et al. 1991. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gallic Acid. Planta Medica, 58(6): 499.

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR15:122: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR7:252: Toyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SCI237:1601: Jim Duke's personal files

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SYN-: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TFLNO.86: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

USA: USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)

W&B: Watt, J.M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 1962.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10563930: Jim Duke's personal files

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