Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) -- Onion, Shallot

Identifier

022050

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) -- Onion, Shallot


Chemicals

1(F)-BETA-FRUCTOSYL-SUCROSE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-(METHYLSULFINYL)-PROPYL-METHYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant =aspirin EMP5:332

1-METHYLDITHIO-PROPANE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-METHYLTRITHIO-PROPANE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-O-CAFFEOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-O-FERULOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-O-P-COUMAROYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-PROPYLTRITHIO-PROPANE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,3-DIMETHYL-(DL)-BUTANE-CIS-1-CIS-DITHIAL-S,S'-DIOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,3-DIMETHYL-5,6-DITHIA-BICYCLO(2,2,1)HEXANE-5-OXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,3-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,4-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,5-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUT-2-EN-1-AL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTYR-2-ALDEHYDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-PENT-2-EN-1-AL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

24-METHYLENE-CYCLOARTENOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

28-ISOFUCOSTEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,4-DIMETHYL-2,5-DIOXO-2,5-DIHYDROTHIOPHENE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,4-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

31-NORCYCLOARTENOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

31-NORLANOSTENOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-ALPHA-METHYL-ZYMOSTENOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-DEHYDRO-AVENASTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-HEXYL-CYCLOPENTA-1,3-DIONE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PC30:799 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

5-OCTYL-CYCLOPENTA-1,3-DIONE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PC30:799 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

6(G)-BETA-FRUCTOSYL-SUCROSE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

9,12,13-TRIHYDROXY-OCTADEC-10-ENOIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

9,1O,13-TRIHYDROXY-OCTADEC-11-ENOIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ABSCISSIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Juvabional DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytohormonal DUKE1992B

ACETAL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B

ALANINE Bulb 330 - 8,597 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALLICIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor 500 uM LAW ; Allergenic AEH74 ; Amebicide 30 ug/ml PR4:137 ; Anthelmintic LAW ; Antiaggregant 0.1-1 uM; Antiatherosclerotic 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn LAW ; Antibacterial 500 ug/ml 452 MIC=27 ug/ml LAW ; Antibiotic PM56:691 ; Anticholinesterase 500 uM LAW ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antiflu PJB1(2):260 ; Antiglaucomic LAW ; Antiherpetic PJB1(2):260 ; Antihypertensive JBH ; Antiinflammatory PM56:665 ; Antileukemic 31+ uM; Antileukotriene PJB1(2):260 ; Antilymphomic JN131:1027S ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuralgic LAW ; Antioxidant 1.8 ug/ml LAW ; Antiplatelet PAL:96 ; Antiproliferant JN131:1027S ; Antiprostaglandin IC67=50 uM JNP54:1541 ; Antiradicular 1.8 ug/ml LAW ; Antisarcomic PJB1(2):260 ; Antiseptic PAL:96 ; Antishigellic JNP67:374 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=27 ug/ml LAW ; Antitriglyceride 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn LAW ; Antitubercular MIC=1.67 mg/ml PR14:303 ; Antitumor LEL ; Antiviral LAW ; Apoptotic 31+ uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=56 uM gpg K29404 ; Candidicide MIC 7 ug/ml LAW ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PJB1(2):260 ; Fungicide PR4:137 ; Gram(+)icide 8-12 ppm LAW ; Gram(-)icide LAW ; Hepatotoxic 100 mg/kg/day (=500 cloves a day) LAW ; Hypocholesterolemic 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn LAW IC37-72=162 ug/ml ATH94:79 IC50=9 uM X8011681 ; Hypoglycemic 0.1 mg/kg; Hypolipidemic ID50=10 uM PM56:691 ; Immunostimulant LAW ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Insulin-Sparing 100 mg/kg/man PAM ; Larvicide DUKE1992B ; Lipolytic 4-6 mg/day LAW ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor ED=25 ug/ml PM56:665 ; Mucokinetic ACM:198 ; Mycobactericide MIC=1.67 mg/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide LAW ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=2.5-5 uM X9712340 ; Papain-Inhibitor 500 uM LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic LAW ; Prooxidant LAW ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor M18398 ; Succinate-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor LAW ; Trichomonicide 411 ; Urease-Inhibitor LAW ; Vibriocide IWU ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor LAW

ALLIIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant IC100=60 ug/ml; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antibiotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 200 mg/kg LAW ; Antihepatotoxic 0.5 ug/ml LAW ; Antineuralgic LAW ; Antioxidant JN131:972S ; Antiplatelet PAL:96 ; Antiradicular ABS ; Antisarcomic 1-3 mg ims rat LAW ; Antithrombotic JBH ; Antitumor LAW ; Hepatoprotective WO3 ; Hypocholesterolemic HG23:9 ; Hypoglycemic LAW ; Immunostimulant LAW ; Lipolytic 200 mg/kg orl rat LAW 7-11 mg/day LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic LAW ; Squalene-Monooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=120 uM/l JN131:1662

ALLIOFUROSIDE-A Pericarp 220 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLIOSPIROSIDE-A Pericarp 4,600 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLIOSPIROSIDE-B Fruit 500 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLIOSPIROSIDE-C Fruit 491 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLIOSPIROSIDE-D Fruit 71 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLYL-PROPYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Hypoglycemic EMP6:161 ; Insulin-Sparing 125 mg/kg/man PAM ; Occuloirritant M&R55

ALPHA-AMYRIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

Analgesic X15964027 ; Antiedemic IC43=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antiinflammatory IC71=1,000 ppm orl FT63(1):3 ; Antinociceptive; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer X14643690 ; Cytotoxic 50-400 DUKE1992B ; Gastroprotective X15368675 ; Hepatoprotective X15763370 ; Insectifuge X10701181

ALPHA-SITOSTEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Bulb 0.4 - 30 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antianginal PIL ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiasthmatic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic DIA ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticonvulsant Synergen FT66:507 ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic DIA ; Antiinfarctal DIA ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiischemic PIL ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC34=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiparkinsonian PIL ; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antistroke PIL ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor (Bladder) PIL ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator PIL

ALUMINUM Bulb 0.3 - 385 ppm DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ARABINOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARACHIDIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGININE Bulb 1,580 - 17,222 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ARSENIC Bulb 0.002 - 0.076 ppm DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Bulb 60 - 2,703 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 390 - 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Bulb 4,000 - 63,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 7,000 - 90,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

ASPARTIC-ACID Bulb 640 - 6,967 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

BARIUM Bulb 4 - 28 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BENZYL-ISOTHIOCYANATE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Albuminurigenic KOM ; Allergenic M&R235 ; Anthelmintic ISSN:0031-9422 ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial; Antibiotic PM61:233 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineoplastic JBH ; Antinitrosaminic PM61:233 ; Antitumor PM61:233 ; Antiviral PM61:233 ; Flatulent RWG30 ; Fungicide JBH ; Herbicide IC100=0.4 mM 438 ; Insecticide PM61:233 ; Irritant KOM ; Laxative 90 mg cow RWG17 ; Nematicide 0.3-6 mM JAF50:690 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Viristat KOM

BETA-CAROTENE Bulb 52 ppm; DUKE1992A Flower 28 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 12 - 158 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-SITOSTEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETA-TOCOPHEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BORON Bulb 1 - 45 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

BRASSICASTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BROMINE Bulb 1 - 15 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CADMIUM Bulb 0.005 - 0.38 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive PAM ; Lithogenic PAM ; Nephrotoxic PAM

CAFFEIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Bulb 200 - 3,008 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 420 - 5,385 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CALCIUM-OXALATE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Emetic PJB1(1):169 ; Inflammatory PJB1(1):169 ; Laxative PJB1(1):169 ; Lithogenic PJB1(1):169

CAMPESTEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC37=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAD

CARBOHYDRATES Bulb 73,200 - 798,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 47,000 - 603,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CATECHOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC50=0.65 mM 438 ; Allergenic M&R ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antigonadotropic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiseptic; Antistomatitic EMP5:197 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyreotropic PM551:1986 ; Antitumor X15712986 ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antiviral EMP5:197 ; Cancer-Preventive DUKE1992B ; Carcinogenic 0.8% diet 505 2% diet PCF:39 ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Convulsant JBH ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Herbicide X15712986 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer PS131:95 ; Tumor-Promoter <0.2% diet 505

CEPAENES Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CEPOSIDE-D Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHOLEST-7-EN-3-BETA-OL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHOLESTEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC43=10 uM JMF5:1

CHOLINE Bulb 830 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CHROMIUM Bulb 0.057 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 4.8 ppm; DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CIS-1-(PROPENYL-DITHIO)-PROPANE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-2,3-DIMETHYL-5,6-DITHIA-CYCLO(2,2,1)HEPTANE-5-OXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-3,5-DIETHYL-1,2,4-TRITHIOLANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-PROPANETHIOL-S-OXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

COBALT Bulb 0.001 - 0.2 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2.5 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Bulb 0.3 - 11 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 18.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CYANIDIN-3-O-BETA-D-DIGLYCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-3-O-LAMINARIBIOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-BIOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-DIGLYCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-MONOGLYCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYCLOALLIIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant LAF ; Fibrinolytic LAF ; Lachrymatory DUKE1992B

CYCLOARTENOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial FT63(1):82 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic 2-5 mg/man DFN:160 ; Antistaphylococcic FT63(1):82 ; Hypocholesterolemic NR11:S120 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ubiquiot JBH

CYCLOEUCALENOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial FT63(1):82 ; Antistaphylococcic FT63(1):82 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

AntiAddisonian DUKE1992B ; Antibiotic JBH ; Anticataract PAM ; Anticytotoxic PM56(2):190 ; Antiophthalmic MAR ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Detoxicant M11 ; Glutathionergic AIL ; Ophthalmic-Antialkali JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CYSTINE Bulb 210 - 2,289 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

D-MANNITOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIALLYL-DISULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Allergenic AEH74 ; Antibacterial MIC=900-1,900 ug/ml LAW ; AntiHIV LAW ; Antilipemic KCH ; Antioxidant JN131:972S ; Antiproliferative 0.5 mg mus 3x/week JN126(5):1355 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=900 ug/ml LAW ; Antitumor 0.5 mg mus 3x/week JN126(5):1355 ; Antitumor (Colon) >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Antiviral LAW ; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor JAR9(4):182 ; Avifuge LAW ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 5-8 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; GT-Inducer 0.3 mg/kg NUC34(1):42 ; Hemolytic LAW ; Hypocholesterolemic LAW ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant LAW ; Insecticide LC50=280-340 ppm JAF36:1052 ; Insectifuge LAW ; Larvicide MAR ; Lipolytic LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 0.3 mg/kg NUC34(1):42

DIALLYL-SULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MIC=>2,500 ug/ml LAW ; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Stomach) PAL:179 ; Antimutagenic ABS ; Antioxidant; Antiseptic LAW ; Antistaphylococcic LAW ; Antitumor HG20:24 ; Antitumor (Colon) >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Antitumor (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg LAW ; Antitumor (Intestine) LAW ; Antitumor (Liver) LAW ; Antitumor (Lung) LAW ; Antitumor (Stomach) LAW ; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Cancer-Preventive (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg ABS ; Cytochrome-P450-2E1-Inhibitor PAL:178 ; FLavor FEMA 1-50 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic IC37-72=146 ug/ml ATH94:79 ; Lipolytic 12 mg/kg LAW ; Occuloirritant M&R55 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective LAW ; Triglycerolytic LAW

DIALLYL-TRISULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Amebicide LAW ; Antibacterial MIC=250-1,900 ug/ml LAW ; Anticancer (Stomach) PAL:179 ; Anticryptococcic LAW ; Antifertility LAW ; Antiflu LAW ; Antigiardial LAW ; Antiherpetic LAW ; Antimeningitic LAW ; Antioxidant; Antipneumonic LAW ; Antiseptic LAW ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml LAW ; Antitrypanosomic LAW ; Antitumor (Lung) 1 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach); Antiviral LAW ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Insecticide LAW ; Insectiphile LAW ; Larvicide LAW ; Lipolytic LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide LAW ; Spermicide LAW ; Trypanosomastat LAW

DIHYDROALLIIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIMETHYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antithyroid PEP ; Perfumery Fragrance ZEB

DIMETHYL-SULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 0.1-2 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

DIMETHYL-TRISULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIPHENYLAMINE Bulb 14 - 11,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic 10 mg/kg orl rbt JE27:243 ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Nephrotoxic 35 mg/day (=100 g onion) DUKE1992B

DIPROPYL-DISULPHIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIPROPYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EICOSEN-1-OL Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Bulb 50 - 150 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHANOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R722 ; Anesthetic 4,000 orl cat BBE 6,000 orl rat BBE ; Anhydrotic M29 ; Antiatherosclerotic PMID11020457 ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antipruritic MAR ; Antiseptic M11 ; CNS-Depressant MAR ; Expectorant SHT ; Hepatotoxic M29 ; Hypertensive >1 drink/day X7760897 ; Hypnotic Antidote=Naloxone M29 ; Hypocalcemic 4,000 orl rat BBE ; Hypotensive 1 drink/day X7760897 ; Mucotropic SHT ; Neurolytic M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Sclerosant M29 ; Surfactant SHT ; Teratogenic 6,000 orl dog BBE ; Tremorilytic MAR ; Ulcerogenic 5 ml/kg (50%) orl rat

FAT Bulb 1,000 - 36,079 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 6,000 - 77,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Bulb 4,400 - 126,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 11,000 - 141,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLUORINE Bulb 0.04 - 0.8 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRUCTOSAN Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRUCTOSE Bulb 65,600 - 162,600 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

FUMARIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Acidulant MAR ; Antidermatitic WIC ; Antihepatocarcinogenic IC100=1% (diet) CPB38:2012 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Antipsoriac WIC ; Antitumor 411 ; FLavor FEMA 50-3,600 ARC

GAMMA-GLUTAMYL-LEUCINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-GLUTAMYL-PHENYLALANINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-GLUTAMYL-PHENYLALANINE-ETHYL-ESTER Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-GLUTAMYL-S-METHYL-CYSTEINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-ARGININE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-ISOLEUCINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S(2-CARBOXY-N-PROPYL)L-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-(1-PROPENYL)L-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-(2-CARBOXY-BETA-METHYL-ETHYL)-CYSTEINYL-GLYCINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-(2-CARBOXY-BETA-METHYL-ETHYL)-CYSTEINYL-GLYCINE-ETHYL-ESTER Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-VALINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GIBBERELLIN-A-4 Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOFRUCTAN Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Bulb 102,000 - 158,600 ppm DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUTAMINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic 1,000 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antidepressant WER ; Antisickling JNP39:427 ; Antiulcer 1,600 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Catabolic TRA

GLUTAN Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLYCINE Bulb 490 - 5,341 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

GLYCOLIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Cholesterolytic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic PED ; Hepatotonic FT5:1986 ; Irritant M11

GRAMISTEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXADECEN-1-OL Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HISTIDINE Bulb 190 - 2,071 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

IRON Bulb 2 - 135 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 34 - 436 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 235 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOLEUCINE Bulb 420 - 4,578 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

KAEMPFEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM JBC8:211 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.73 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic RWG122 ; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat PMP23:193 ; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg DUKE1992B 200 mg/kg ipr rat DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilymphocytic JBH ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=1.2 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC50=40 uM PC27:972 ; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:774 ; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM X10673981 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic ZUL ; Choleretic LAF ; Copper-Chelator X10976523 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX:50 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic JAF50:850 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=0.56 uM X10923837 ; Fungicide 20 ug/ml FNF ; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm X11714299 IC50=5.46 uM X11714299 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml JNP54:142 ; Hypotensive FT1990:508 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic; Natriuretic BJP3:10 ; Neuroprotective X10813558 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 ; PAF-Inhibitor FT67:548 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide PR13:102 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

KAEMPFEROL-3,4'-DI-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-4',7-DI-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-4'-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KILOCALORIES Bulb 380 - 3,750 /kg DUKE1992A Leaf 260 - 3,330 /kg DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEAD Bulb 0.01 - 1.4 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Bulb 410 - 4,469 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed Oil: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LITHIUM Bulb 0.152 - 0.324 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant DAS ; Antihyperthyroid DAS ; Antimanic DAS ; AntiPMS DAS ; Antipsychotic DAS ; Antischizophrenic DAS ; Antiviral JLR2(3):16 ; Cholinergic JLR2(3):16 ; Deliriant DAS ; Natriuretic JLR2(3):16 ; Nephrotoxic DAS

LOPHENOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LYSINE Bulb 560 - 6,104 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Bulb 76 - 1,230 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MANGANESE Bulb 1 - 38 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 19.4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MERCURY Bulb 0.001 ppm; DUKE1992A

Nephrotoxic PAM

METHANOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antidote =Sodium-bicarbonate M29 ; AntiHIV EC50=<20 ug/ml DUKE1992B

METHIONINE Bulb 100 - 1,090 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHIONINE-METHYLSULFONIUM Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHIONINE-SULFONE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-ALLIIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-CIS-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-DITHIO-METHANE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-PROPENYL-TRISULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-PROPYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYLPROPYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MEVALONIC-ACID Bulb 0.5 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MOLYBDENUM Bulb 0.1 - 2.3 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Esophagus)? DAS ; Antitumor (Esophagus)? DAS

MUFA Bulb 230 - 2,230 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

MYRISTIC-ACID Bulb 10 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

MYROSINASE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PROPYL-MERCAPTAN Bulb: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 0.1-0.5 ARC

NIACIN Bulb 1 - 75 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 7 - 90 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICKEL Bulb 0.05 - 2.5 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 0.03 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

NITROGEN Bulb 1,700 - 17,690 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NONADECANOIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OLEANOLIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic LAF351 ; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antiatherosclerotic LAF351 ; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antifertility PMP24:113 ; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr JNP54:455 ; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM X11085357 ; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM JMF5:1 BCI28:735 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM X11085357 ; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antisarcomic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antitumor LAF351 ; Antitumor (Breast) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antiulcer >carbenoxolone PJB1(1):181 ; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml JNP61:1090 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/ JNP61:1212 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Diuretic LAF ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:211 ; Hypolipemic LAF351 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator LAF351 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X14966369 ; Phagocytotic LAF351 ; Piscicide WOI ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative LAF351 ; Uterotonic; Vasopressor X15070161

OLEIC-ACID Bulb 230 - 2,230 ppm DUKE1992A Seed Oil: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

OXALIC-ACID Bulb 10 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-COUMARIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-HYDROXYBANZOIC-ACID Bulb 107 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PAEONIDIN-GLYCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Bulb 240 - 2,325 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Bulb 1 - 16 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PECTIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PELARGONIDIN-MONOGLYCOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PENTOSAN Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PEROXIDASE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENYLALANINE Bulb 300 - 3,270 ppm DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHLOROGLUCINOL Bulb 100 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PMP23:54 ; Antispasmodic 480 mg/day/orl man M29 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:2737 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Decalcifier M11 ; Fungicide PC29(4):1093 ; Goitrogenic AFR27:188 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PHLOROGLUCINOL-CARBOXYLIC-ACID Bulb 100 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Bulb 275 - 4,038 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 310 - 5,513 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PHYTOHORMONE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHYTOSTEROLS Bulb 150 - 1,455 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic MPP

POTASSIUM Bulb 1,514 - 22,164 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROLINE Bulb 370 - 4,033 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROP-CIS-ENYL-PROPYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROP-CIS-ENYL-PROPYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROP-TRANS-ENYL-PROPYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROP-TRANS-ENYL-PROPYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPAN-1-OL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPANE-1-THIOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPIONAL Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPIONALDEHYDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 5-12 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

PROSTAGLANDIN-A-1 Bulb 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive MAR

PROTEIN Bulb 10,940 - 162,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 18,000 - 231,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Bulb 4,500 - 17,540 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic JAF49:5674 ; Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor X16500886 ; Antiarrhythmic ACM:407 ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial PR4(5):198 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antiischemic JBH ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic X10856425 ; Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Antimutagenic X9025787 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHT 10 x alpha-tocopherol JAF49:5674 2/3 quercetin; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 IC75=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antiseptic YAK122:487 ; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM PR4(2):73 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Mouth) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Skin) JAF49:5674 ; Antitussive ACM:200 ; Antiviral JAF45:1039 ; Apoptotic X10856425 ; Carcinogenic JAF49:5674 ; Cardioprotective X16407799 ; Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat JAF49:5674 ; Fungicide 500 ug/ml 438 ; Glutathione-Depleting JAF49:5674 ; Hepatotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Nephrotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic EMP1:124 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Secretogogue CAN ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Ubiquiot JBH

PUFA Bulb 620 - 6,005 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacne MAR ; Antieczemic MAR ; AntiMS MAR ; Antipolyneuritic MAR

PYROCATECHOL Bulb: DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Cardiovascular 100 mg/kg ivn dog BBE ; CNS-Stimulant 5 mg/kg ivn cat BBE ; Dermatitigenic M11 ; Dye M11 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer PS131:95

PYRUVIC-ACID Fruit 1,034 ppm; DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-110 ARC

QUERCETIN Bulb 48,100 ppm; DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 IC50=0.344 uM ZZZ18:623 IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic JBH ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM X11714299 IC50=7.5 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM JAF45:4505 IC50=55 uM EMP5:333 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM JIM127:546 ; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antianaphylactic PR4(5):201 ; Antiangiogenic EJP459:255 ; Antiarthritic COX ; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic X11020457 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM MED ; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract PM56(3):258 ; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day PAM ; Anticomplementary JNP65:1457 ; AntiCrohn's PAM ; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks X11272677 ; Antidepressant JMF6:391 ; Antidermatitic PAM ; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antiencephalitic EMP5:199 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrosarcomic JAF45:4505 ; Antiflu V&D ; Antigastric RR21:85 ; Antigonadotropic JBH ; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):171 ; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antihydrophobic V&D ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg FT5:1990 ; Antileishmanic IC50=64 JNP65:1457 ; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM BO2 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml MPT ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antimyocarditic EMP5:199 ; Antinitrosaminic PAL:339 ; Antinociceptive PR14:40 ; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E BO2 ED50=2.3 uM PR14:93 IC47=10 uM JMF5:1 IC96=300 ppm PCF ; Antipancreatitic JNU ; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antipermeability DUKE1992B ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64 JNP65:1457 ; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn PAM ; Antipodriac; Antipolio PAM ; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid PCF:51 ; Antiprostatitic JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithrombic PAL:339 ; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13 JNP65:1457 ; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF45:4505 ; Antitumor (Lung) X10918203 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter PAM ; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml JNP55:1732 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor NIG ; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml QRNM(SUMMER):91 ; Bradycardiac KCH ; Calmodulin-Antagonist PAM ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus NIG ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; COMT-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM BO2 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml PM56(6):677 IC82=100 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Differentiator 5.5 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic 10% genistein B02 ; Fungicide X10857921 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostat KCH ; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective FT67:200 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml JNP53(5):1239 ; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat JE27:243 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic X10404425 ; Insulinogenic PAM ; Juvabional 438 ; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM JAF38:688 IC50=0.1-5 uM DFN:154 ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer DUKE1992B ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) PR14:93 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Mutagenic HG22:27 ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15180920 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM X15832817 IC>50=125 uM JAF50:850 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM FNF ; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM FNF ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12144868 ; Phospholipase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; Plasmodicide HDN ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml PR11:281 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor PCF:14 ; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM BO2 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM CLE120:213 ; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM BO2 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM BO2 ; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr 505 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor X16737615 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM PM69:1125 IC50=10.6 ug/ml X12591129 IC50=>0.4 ug/ml CPB38:1772

QUERCETIN-3,4'-DI-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb 1,700 - 5,600 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb 40 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory PM56(6):660 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

QUERCETIN-4',7-DI-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb 160 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-4-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb 100 - 800 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUINIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

RAFFINOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Flatugenic PFH46:77

RHAMNOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Bulb 0.4 - 15 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RIBOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RUBIDIUM Bulb 0.14 - 6.6 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RUTIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

S-(2-CARBOXY-PROPYL)-GLUTATHIONE Bulb 125 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

S-(BETA-CARBOXYBETA-METHYL-ETHER)-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

S-ALLYL-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

S-METHYL-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

S-METHYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic PM61:72 ; Antihypercholesterolemic WO3

S-PROP-1-ENYL-CYSTEINE-S-OXIDE Bulb 26 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

S-PROPYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SAPONIN Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELENIUM Bulb 0.001 - 0.003 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

SELENO-HOME-CYSTINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELENO-METHIONINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELENO-METHYL-SELENOCYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELENO-METHYL-SELENOMETHIONINE Bulb: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELENOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SERINE Bulb 350 - 3,815 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525

SFA Bulb 260 - 2,520 ppm DUKE1992A

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Onions and garlic
Shallots

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ABS: Abstract (See species file)

ACM:198: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:211: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 211.

ACM:407: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 407.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH74: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:180: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:188: Jim Duke's personal files

AIL: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ATH94:79: Atherogenesis 94:79-85. 1992.

B02: Jim Duke's personal files

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BCI28:735: Balanehru, S. and Nagarajan, B. 1992. Intervention of Adriamycin Induced Free Radical Damage. Biochemistry International 28(4): 735-744, 1992.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

COX:50: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2012: Akao, M. and Kuroda, K. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Fumaric Acid on Hepatocarcinogenesis by Thioacetamide in Mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(7): 2012-2014, 1990.

CPB38:2737: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB38:774: Yasukawa, K., Takido, M., Takeuchi, M., Sato, Y., Nitta, K., and Nakagawa, S. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Flavonol Glycosides on 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-Induced Tumor Promotion. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(3): 774-776, 1990.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:154: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:159: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DIA: Soumyanath, A. Ed. 2006. Traditional Medicines for Modern Times - Antidiabetic Plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 314 pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP459:255: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:332: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:161: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FCT36:623: Yannai, S., Day, A. J., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1998. Characterization of Flavonoids as Monofunctional or Bifunctional Inducers of Quinone Reductase in Murine Hepatoma Cell Lines. Food Chem Toxicol, 36(8): 623-630.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT1990:508: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):82: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:507: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:200: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:548: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:24: Jim Duke's personal files

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HG22:27: Jim Duke's personal files

HG23:9: Jim Duke's personal files

HG50:31: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

ISSN:0031-9422: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1052: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:5674: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4567: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5884: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:690: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6953: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR9(4):182: Jim Duke's personal files

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE32:175: Jim Duke's personal files

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JIM127:546: Jim Duke's personal files.

JLR2(3):16: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:391: Jim Duke's personal files

JN126(5):1355: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN131:1027S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN131:1662: Jim Duke's personal files

JN131:972S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:427: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(5):1239: Nakane, H., Fukushima, M., and Ono*, K. Differential Inhibition Of Reverse Transcriptase And Various DNA Polymerases By Digallic Acid And Its Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5): 1234-1240, 1990.

JNP54:142: Garcia, J., Morin,* C., Nyasse, B., Sondengam, B-L., Tchouankeu, J-C., and Tsamo, E. Complete Structural Assignments Of An Ergosterol Derivative From Entandrophragma utile. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 136-142, 1991.

JNP54:1541: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP54:455: Aquino, R., De Feo, V., De Simone, F., Pizza, C.*, and Cirino, G. Plant Metabolites. New Compounds And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Uncaria tomentosa. Journal of Natural Products, 54(2): 453-459, 1991.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP58:217: Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP65:1457: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:374: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K29404: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

KOM: Commission E. Blumenthal,M.,Hall,T. and Rister,R.S. eds.1997.The ABC's German Commission E Monographs - Therapeutic Monographs on Medicinal Plants for Human Use by Commission E - A Special Expert Committee of the German Federal Health Agency.ABC.Austin TX

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF351: Jim Duke's personal files

LAW: LAWSON in Koch, H. P. and Lawson, L. D., eds. 1996. Garlic- The Science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 329 pp.

LEL: Lewis and Elvin-Lewis, Medical Botany, ca 1977

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R: Mitchell, J. and Rook, A.J. 1923. Botanical Dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver: Greengrass, 1979. xiii, 787 p.: ill.

M&R235: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R55: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R722: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M18398: Jim Duke's personal files

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED97: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPI: =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp Note: (2 vols so far).

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

NUC34(1):42: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:178: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:179: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:339: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:96: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(4):1093: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC30:799: Jim Duke's personal files

PC33:557: Okamura, H., Mimura, A., Yakou, Y., Niwano, M., and Takahara, Y. 1992. Antoxidant Activity of Tannins and Flavonoids in Eucalyptus rostrata. Phytochemistry. 33(3): 557-561. 1993.

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PC44:1037: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:14: Naim, M., Zehavi, U., Nagy, S., and Rouseff, R.L. Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Off-Flavor Precursors in Citrus Fruits and Their Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.14.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:39: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PHM1:145: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):181: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PM551:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(2):171: Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., and Dorfman, P. 1989. Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Injury in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes: A Model for Studying Anti-Hepatotoxic Crude Drugs. Planta Medica 56(2): 171-173, 1990.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):190: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):660: Planta Medica, 56(6): 660, 1990.

PM56(6):677: Matsukawa, Y., et al. The Effect of Quercetin and Other Flavonoids on Cell Cycle Progresssion and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 56(6): 677, 1990.

PM56(6):681: Planta Medica, 56(6): 681, 1990.

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:665: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:691: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:233: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:72: Jim Duke's personal files

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID11020457: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:193: Kumar, P., Dixit*, V.P., and Khanna, P. Antifertility Studies of Kaempferol: Isolation and Identification from Tissue Culture of some Medicinally Important Plant Species. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 23: 193-201, 1989.

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:54: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:113: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:56: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR11:281: Ibewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.

PR13:102: Meckes, M., Calzada, F., Tapia-Contreras, A., Cedillo-Rivera, R. 1999. Antiprotozoal Properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13(2): 102-105.

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:40: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:93: Seidel, V., Verholle, M., Malard, Y., Tillequin, F., Fruchart, J-C., Duriez, P., Bailleul, F., Teissier, E. 2000. Phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra L. Inhibit in vitro LDL Peroxidation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 93-98.

PR4(2):73: Ortiz de Urbina, J.J., Martin, M.L., Sevilla, M.A., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., and San Roman, L. Antispasmodic Activity on Rat Smooth Muscle of Polyphenol Compounds Caffeic and Protocathechic Acids. Phytotherapy Research 4(2): 73, 1990.

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR4(5):201: Meli, R., Autore, G., Di Carlo, G., Capasso, F. Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 201, 1990.

PR4:137: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

QRNM(SUMMER):91: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RR21:85: Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.

RWG122: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG30: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT: Schulz, V, Hansel, R and Tyler, VE. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy - A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. 1st English Edition. Translated by Terry C. Telger. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. 306 pp.

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TRA: Tramil

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10404425: Jim Duke's personal files

X10506109: Jim Duke's personal files

X10673981: Jim Duke's personal files

X10701181: Jim Duke's personal files

X10723772: Jim Duke's personal files

X10813558: Jim Duke's personal files

X10830511: Jim Duke's personal files

X10856425: Jim Duke's personal files

X10857921: Jim Duke's personal files

X10879476: Jim Duke's personal files

X10918203: Jim Duke's personal files

X10923837: Jim Duke's personal files

X10976523: Jim Duke's personal files

X11020457: Jim Duke's personal files

X11085357: Jim Duke's personal files

X11199135: Jim Duke's personal files

X11272677: Jim Duke's personal files

X11307877: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X11752233: Jim Duke's personal files

X11988857: Jim Duke's personal files

X12010246: Jim Duke's personal files

X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X12065212: Jim Duke's personal files

X12090773: Jim Duke's personal files

X12120812: Jim Duke's personal files

X12144868: Jim Duke's personal files

X12224631: Jim Duke's personal files

X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

X12584792: Jim Duke's personal files

X12591129: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802204: Jim Duke's personal files

X12898427: Jim Duke's personal files

X13678231: Jim Duke's personal files

X14586095: Jim Duke's personal files

X14643690: Jim Duke's personal files

X14646351: Jim Duke's personal files

X14966369: Jim Duke's personal files

X15070161: Jim Duke's personal files

X15180920: Jim Duke's personal files

X15322261: Jim Duke's personal files

X15368675: Jim Duke's personal files

X1559614: Jim Duke's personal files

X15712986: Jim Duke's personal files

X15763370: Jim Duke's personal files

X15796587: Jim Duke's personal files

X15832817: Jim Duke's personal files

X15964027: Jim Duke's personal files

X16104801: Jim Duke's personal files

X16277432: Jim Duke's personal files

X16394541: Jim Duke's personal files

X16407799: Jim Duke's personal files

X16500886: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16737615: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X17350814: Jim Duke's personal files

X17358014: Jim Duke's personal files

X18095647: Jim Duke's personal files

X3101704: Jim Duke's personal files

X579998: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X6654625: Jim Duke's personal files

X7760897: Jim Duke's personal files

X8011681: Jim Duke's personal files

X9025787: Jim Duke's personal files

X9712340: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZUL: Hutchings, A, Scott, AH, Lewis, G, and Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

ZZZ18:623: Mao, X. M., Zhang, J. Q. 1993. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi , 18(10): 623-624.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Mon Oct 26 14:07:29 EDT 2015