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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Allium ampeloprasum L. (Liliaceae) -- Elephant Garlic, Kurrat [and leek]

Identifier

021103

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Allium ampeloprasum L. (Liliaceae) -- Elephant Garlic, Kurrat [and leek]


Chemicals

1-O-CAFFEOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,4-DIMETHYL-2,5-DIOXO-2,5-DIHYDROTHIOPHENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,5-DIALKYLTRITHIOLANES Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-HYDROXY-PROLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETYL-SYNTHETASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADENYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALCOHOL-DEHYDROGENASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLIIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant IC100=60 ug/ml; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antibiotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 200 mg/kg LAW ; Antihepatotoxic 0.5 ug/ml LAW ; Antineuralgic LAW ; Antioxidant JN131:972S ; Antiplatelet PAL:96 ; Antiradicular ABS ; Antisarcomic 1-3 mg ims rat LAW ; Antithrombotic JBH ; Antitumor LAW ; Hepatoprotective WO3 ; Hypocholesterolemic HG23:9 ; Hypoglycemic LAW ; Immunostimulant LAW ; Lipolytic 200 mg/kg orl rat LAW 7-11 mg/day LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic LAW ; Squalene-Monooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=120 uM/l JN131:1662

ALLITHIAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLYL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLYL-MONOSULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLYL-SULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acantholytic ROD ; Allergenic M&R56 ; Antiaggregant LAW ; Antibacterial PEP ; Pemphigenic ROD ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respiradepressant ivn PEP

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antianginal PIL ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiasthmatic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic DIA ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticonvulsant Synergen FT66:507 ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic DIA ; Antiinfarctal DIA ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiischemic PIL ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC34=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiparkinsonian PIL ; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antistroke PIL ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor (Bladder) PIL ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator PIL

ALUMINUM-PHOSPHATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGINASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARGININE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ASCORBIC-ACID Flower 400 - 2,367 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 170 - 3,019 ppm DUKE1992A Root 170 - 1,241 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASCORBIC-ACID-OXIDASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASH Flower 4,000 - 24,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 8,000 - 75,000 ppm DUKE1992A Root 9,000 - 66,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

ASPARTIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

BETA-CAROTENE Flower 25 - 151 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.2 - 230 ppm DUKE1992A Root 0.2 - 1.8 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BUTYL-SULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Flower 230 - 1,361 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 520 - 5,472 ppm DUKE1992A Root 520 - 3,796 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CARBOHYDRATES Flower 105,000 - 621,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 70,000 - 767,000 ppm DUKE1992A Root 103,000 - 752,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CATALASE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant 505

CELLULOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Hemostat M29

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CYCLOALLIIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant LAF ; Fibrinolytic LAF ; Lachrymatory DUKE1992B

CYTIDYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEHYDROASCORBIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Essential JBH

DI-PROPYL-THIOSULFINATES Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIALLYL-SULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MIC=>2,500 ug/ml LAW ; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Stomach) PAL:179 ; Antimutagenic ABS ; Antioxidant; Antiseptic LAW ; Antistaphylococcic LAW ; Antitumor HG20:24 ; Antitumor (Colon) >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Antitumor (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg LAW ; Antitumor (Intestine) LAW ; Antitumor (Liver) LAW ; Antitumor (Lung) LAW ; Antitumor (Stomach) LAW ; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Cancer-Preventive (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg ABS ; Cytochrome-P450-2E1-Inhibitor PAL:178 ; FLavor FEMA 1-50 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic IC37-72=146 ug/ml ATH94:79 ; Lipolytic 12 mg/kg LAW ; Occuloirritant M&R55 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective LAW ; Triglycerolytic LAW

DIKETOGLUCONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIMETHYL-DISULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antithyroid PEP ; Perfumery Fragrance ZEB

ESCULETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.1-5 uM; Analgesic PMP24:107 ; Antiarrhythmic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic? PMP24:107 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticapillary-Fragility WIC ; Antidysenteric HG24:37 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiinflammatory; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antipyretic FT67:483 ; Antiseptic JE39:205 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiodepressant DUKE1992B ; Choleretic FT5:1986 ; Cosmetic FT67:483 ; Cytotoxic MAB ; Dermatitigenic WIC ; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective 6 mg/kg mus X9503477 ; Hypertensive CCO ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant WOI ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen IC100=50 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=20 mg/l FT64:134 ; UV-Screen WIC ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC52=10 uM

ESTERASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-SULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYLENE-BIS-DITHIO-CARBAMATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Flower 5,000 - 30,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 3,000 - 47,000 ppm DUKE1992A Root 3,000 - 22,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERRIC-PHOSPHATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Flower 11,000 - 65,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 10,000 - 94,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FOLACIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl PAM ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man PAM ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antineuropathic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antipsychotic M29 ; AntiSpina-Bifida DAS ; Hematopoietic M11 ; Uricosuric PAM ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PAM

FRUCTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

FRUCTOSYLSUCROSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GALACTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GLUCOFRUCTAN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUTAMATE-DEHYDROGENASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUTAMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLUTAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic 1,000 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antidepressant WER ; Antisickling JNP39:427 ; Antiulcer 1,600 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Catabolic TRA

GUANYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEMICELLULOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HISTIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

HISTONES Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IRON Flower 9 - 53 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 11 - 255 ppm DUKE1992A Root 11 - 80 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOCHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PCF:64 ; Antiseptic JNP46(5) ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ISOLEUCINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

KAEMPFEROL-3-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-XYLOSYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-HETEROSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KILOCALORIES Flower 550 - 3,250 /kg DUKE1992A Leaf 350 - 3,560 /kg DUKE1992A Root 450 - 3,280 /kg DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LACTATE-DEHYDROGENASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LIGNIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticancer AFR27:209 ; Anticoronary AFR27:209 ; Antidiarrheic M29 ; AntiHIV DUKE1992B ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:209 ; Antioxidant AFR27:209 ; Antitumor AFR27:209 ; Antiviral CPB38:3033 ; Chelator AFR27:209 ; Hypocholesterolemic AFR27:209 ; Laxative AFR27:209 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

LIGNOCERIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic

LINOLEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LINOLENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LYSINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MALTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic JBH ; Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

MANNITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic X1482539 ; Anthelmintic WOI ; Antiglaucomic MAR ; Antiinflammatory WOI ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic M29 ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiradicular PCF:146 ; AntiReye's M29 ; Antispasmodic WOI ; Diuretic M11 ; Emetic MAR ; Flatugenic M29 ; Laxative; Nephrotoxic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sweetener JBH

METHIONINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHYL-ALLIIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-SULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYO-INOSITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NIACIN Flower 9 - 53 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 5 - 57 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICOTINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antichilblain 50 mg/3x/day DAS ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidote (pesticides) DAS ; Antischizophrenic DAS ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 1-6 g/man/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic EMP6:157 ; Lipolytic DAS

ODORIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial PEP ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

OXALATE-DEHYDROGENASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OXALIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-COUMARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

PALMITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PECTINS Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PEROXIDASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENANTHRENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENOL-OXIDASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENYLALANINE Plant: DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHOSPHORUS Flower 380 - 2,249 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 480 - 4,528 ppm DUKE1992A Root 500 - 3,650 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

POLYPHENOLS Plant: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antiangiogenic X15629234 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor JNP59:205 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

POTASSIUM Leaf 3,160 - 29,811 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPANE-THIOSULFINATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYL-DISULFIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROPYLOALLIIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Flower 55,000 - 325,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 22,000 - 217,000 ppm DUKE1992A Root 22,000 - 161,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3'-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial PMPP37:281 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

RAFFINOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Flatugenic PFH46:77

RIBOFLAVIN Flower 1.9 - 11.2 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.6 - 9.4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RIBONUCLEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiasthenic M29 ; Antidementia M29 ; Memorigenic M29

S-2,2-PROPENYL-AMINO-ACID-SULFOXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SAPONINS Plant: DUKE1992A

Antihepatomic NR54:S71 ; Antimutagenic NR54:S71 ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antitumor (Ovary) NR54:S71 ; Immunomodulator NR54:S71

SCOPOLETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM 438 ; Analgesic PM56(6):595 ; Anesthetic HDN ; Antiadrenergic HDN ; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm X11714299 IC50=65 uM X11714299 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihepatotoxic BIS ; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear PM56(6):504 ; Antileukotrienogenic PM56(6):595 ; Antimutagenic MAB ; Antioxidant PH2 ; Antiproliferant X11749777 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Apoptotic X11749777 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; CNS-Stimulant WBB ; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM BIOSIS'96 ; Hepatoprotective WIC ; Herbicide JBH ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:165 ; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor X11575966 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin PC29(6):1789 ; Phytohormonal JBH ; Uterosedative 411

SERINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525

SIDERAMINES Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SILICON-DIOXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SINAPIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antioxidant IC27=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxynitrite IC39=5 uM JAF50:5884 IC60=20 uM JAF50:5884 IC75=100 uM JAF50:5884 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungicide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SODIUM Leaf 50 - 472 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

STACHYOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Flatugenic PFH46:77

STEARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

SUCCINIC-DEHYDROGENASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SUCROSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Aggregant PAM ; Antihiccup 1 tsp M29 ; Antiophthalmic M29 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Atherogenic PAM ; Collyrium JBH ; Demulcent JBH ; Flatugenic PFH46:77 ; Hypercholesterolemic PAM ; Preservative M11 ; Sweetener 1 x sucrose M11 ; Triglycerigenic PAM ; Uricogenic PAM ; Vulnerary M29

SULFUR Leaf 600 - 700 ppm DUKE1992A

Acarifuge DUKE1992B ; Antiacne M29 ; Antiarthritic WER ; Antidandruff M29 ; Antigrey M29 ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiseborrheic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Comedogenic M29 ; Keratolytic M29 ; Laxative M29 ; Parasiticide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Scabicide M29

SULFUR-TRIOXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

THIAMIN Flower 1.4 - 8.3 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 0.9 - 8.5 ppm DUKE1992A Root 1.1 - 8 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THIAMIN-PYROPHOSPHATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

THREONINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

TRYPTOPHAN Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

TYROSINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

UMBELLIFERONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=4.8 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC94=2 mM 438 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antiedemic HDN ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory RWG141 ; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic FT63(5):387 ; Cancer-Preventive PM1987:526 ; Candidicide FT63(5):387 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide 411 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photoactive FT63(5):387 ; Sunscreen M11 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor MAB

URIDYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VALINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

VIT-U Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WATER Flower 831,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 854,000 - 894,000 ppm DUKE1992A Root 863,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Plant: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Kurrat
Leeks

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABS: Abstract (See species file)

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:209: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ATH94:79: Atherogenesis 94:79-85. 1992.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIOSIS'96: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:3033: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DIA: Soumyanath, A. Ed. 2006. Traditional Medicines for Modern Times - Antidiabetic Plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 314 pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:165: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 165

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FT1990:503: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(5):387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:507: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:483: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:24: Jim Duke's personal files

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG23:9: Jim Duke's personal files

HG24:37: HerbalGram No. 24, page 37.

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5884: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR9(4):182: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE39:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JN131:1662: Jim Duke's personal files

JN131:972S: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP39:427: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP46(5): J. Nat. Prod. 46(5).

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAW: LAWSON in Koch, H. P. and Lawson, L. D., eds. 1996. Garlic- The Science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 329 pp.

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R55: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R56: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:178: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:179: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:96: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29(6):1789: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF:146: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:64: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 64.

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PM1987:526: Gawron, A. and Glowniak, K. 1987. Cytostatic Activity of Coumarins in vitro. Planta Medica 1987: 526.

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):504: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):595: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:107: Jim Duke's personal files

PMPP37:281: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

ROD: My Rodale Press Green Farmacy Draft, miscellaneous abstracts.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TRA: Tramil

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10830511: Jim Duke's personal files

X11199135: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X11575966: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X11749777: Jim Duke's personal files

X11988857: Jim Duke's personal files

X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X12090773: Jim Duke's personal files

X12120812: Jim Duke's personal files

X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802204: Jim Duke's personal files

X1482539: Jim Duke's personal files

X15629234: Jim Duke's personal files

X15712986: Jim Duke's personal files

X15796587: Jim Duke's personal files

X16277432: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X17350814: Jim Duke's personal files

X17358014: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X6654625: Jim Duke's personal files

X9025787: Jim Duke's personal files

X9503477: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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