Observations placeholder

Dr Duke’s list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Adonis vernalis L. -- Spring Adonis

Identifier

018335

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Dr Duke’s list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae) -- Spring Adonis


Chemicals

16-HYDROXYSTROPHANTHIDINE Leaf: DUKE1992A Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-ACETYLSTROPHADOGENIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-EPI-PERIPLOGENIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETYLADONITOXIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACONITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Perfumery FEMA 1-30 ppm ARC

ADONIDIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONIDOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITOL Plant 40,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITOXIGENIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITOXIGENIN-2-ACETYL-RHAMNOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITOXIGENIN-3-(O-ALPHA-L{2'O-ACETYL}-RHAMNOSIDO)-BETA-D... Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITOXIGENIN-3-(O-ALPHA-L{3'O-ACETYL}-RHAMNOSIDO)-BETA-D... Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITOXIGENIN-3-O-ALPHA-L-RHAMNOSIDO-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONITOXIN Leaf: DUKE1992A Plant: DUKE1992A

Cardiotonic HHB

ADONITOXOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONIVERNIDASE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONIVERNITH Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ADONIVERNOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Cardiac HHB

BERBERINE Plant: DUKE1992A

(+)-Inotropic MAB ; Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Adrenolytic MAB ; Amebicide 200 ug/ml PAM EC83=100 ug/ml orl rat MAB ; Analgesic LRN-JUL91 ; Anesthetic LRN-JUL91 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase; Antiacne MAB ; Antiadrenergic KCH ; Antiaggregant; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antiamnesic MAB ; Antiangiogenic X15322253 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic COX ; Antibacillus MIC=200 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antibacterial 100 mg/4x/day LRN-JUL91 12.5-2,500 ug/ml PAM MIC=6-630 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antibiotic PAM ; Anticancer; Anticariogenic MAB ; Antichlamydial PH2 ; Anticholecystitic 5-20 mg/3x/day/orl PAM ; Anticholera 150 mg/man/day MAR ; Anticirrhotic PAM ; Anticonjunctivitic 0.2% PAM ; Anticonvulsant 411 ; Antidiarrheic 100 mg/4x/day LRN-JUL91 ; Antidysenteric; Antiedemic MAB ; Antiendotoxic CAN ; Antienterotoxic PAM ; Antiesherichic; Antigiardial 10 mg/kg/day 414 ; Antiglaucomic AHP136 ; Antigonorrhea PJB1(3):231 ; Antihepatomic MAB ; Antihepatotic PMP25:62 ; Antiherpetic FEL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory; Antiischemic MAB ; Antileishmanic 10 ug/ml PR4(4):132 ; Antilipogenic IC63=10 uM MAB ; Antimalarial 0.14-0.36 ug/ml JE32:161 50 uM PR4(4):132 ; Antimitotic MAB ; Antimuscarinic CAN ; Antimyalgic FEL ; Antimycotic MAB ; Antineoplastic LRN-JUN87 ; Antinephritic PMP25:62 ; Antiperistaltic BRU ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiphotooxidative JAF48:1058 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=0.14-0.36 ug/ml; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipyretic 3 x aspirin; Antisalmonella PJB1(3):231 ; Antisecretory; Antiseptic 25 ug/ml; Antishigellic 12.5 ug/ml PAM ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Antispermigenic JE32:173 ; Antistaphylococcic PJB1(3):231 ; Antistrep PAM ; Antisyphilitic FEL ; Antitrachomic 0.2%; Antitrypanosomic 411 ; Antitubercular MIC=25 ug/ml; Antitumor (brain) IC91=150 ug/ml W&M ; Antiulcer; Antivaginitic KCH ; Antiviral KCH ; Astringent DUKE1992B ; Bilirubinolytic PH2 ; Calcium-Antagonist MAB ; Candidicide 414 ; Cardiodepressant KCH ; Cardiotonic; Carminative CAN ; Cholagogue AEHD1:99 ; Cholekinetic; Choleretic 411 ; Collyrium DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Digestive AHP137 ; Diuretic AHP137 ; Emetic AEHD1:101 ; Fungicide 12.5-150 ug/ml PAM ; Glaucomagenic AHP136 ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic JE27:243 ; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Immunostimulant; Lachrymatory MAB ; Larvicide 9 ppm JCE10:115 ; Leucocytogenic PH2 ; Lipase-Inhibitor MED ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=118 uM PM60:421 ; Mutagenic; Mycobactericide MIC=25-50 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Mydriatic MAB ; Myocardiodepressant DUKE1992B ; Myorelaxant AHP137 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phototoxic 9 ppm JCE10:115 ; Plasmodicide IC50=0.14-0.36 ug/ml POP:117 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 25 mg/kg ivn rbt CHP12:526 ; Protisticide IC50=0.14-0.36 ug/ml POP:117 ; Respiradepressant MAR ; RNA-Depressant DUKE1992B ; RT-Inhibitor EMP5:222 ; Sedative; Stomachic PJB1(1) ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 2.5 uM PM61:414 ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Trypanocide; Uterocontractant; Uterotonic 411 ; Vagostimulant man AHP136 ; Vasoconstrictor 414 ; Vasodilator 2 mg/kg cat AHP136 ; Vermifuge PJB1(1) ; Vibriofuge LRN-JUL91

BETA-ACETYLADONITOXIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-D-DIGINOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CHOLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CITRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

CYMARIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Anticarcinomic ED50=3.9 ppb DUKE1992B ; Cardiotonic M11 ; Myocardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Myotonic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

DEXTRIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

K-STROPHANTHIDIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

K-STROPHANTHIN Leaf: DUKE1992A Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-ASPARAGINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-RHAMNOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LINOLEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LINOLEON Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUTEOLINXYLOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ORIENTIN-2"-O-BETA-D-XYLOPYRANOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PENTATRIACONTANE Plant: DUKE1992A

Herbistat FT63(4):364

PENTOSANS Plant 140,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHYTOSTEROLS Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic MPP

PROTEIN Plant 140,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCITRIN Plant: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=0.67 mM/ K25469 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 0.1-100 uM 0.5-4 ug/ml IC50=2 uM CPB38:2733 IC50=64 uM rat SPJ4:45 IC55=0.1 uM PM56(3):257 IC55=0.15 uM; Antiarrhythmic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticataract PM239:1986 ; Antiedemic KCH ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiflu AYL ; Antihemorrhagic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antiinflammatory KCH ; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antioxidant IC50=120 uM PC27:972 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:76 ; Antistaphylococcic 0.412% HG40:24 ; Antithrombogenic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer JBH ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic LAF ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 200 uM HH2 ; Detoxicant LAF ; Diuretic KCH ; Dye M11 ; Hemostat JBH ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:189 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Insectiphile JBH ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; MAO-Inhibitor HG40:12 ; Paralytic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasopressor JE26:76

STROPHADOGENIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

STROPHANTHIDIN-DIGITALOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

THYMINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VERNADIGIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VERNADIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Spring Adonis

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

414: Jim Duke's personal files

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:101: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:99: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP136: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP137: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CHP12:526: Huang, C. G., Chu, Z. L., Yang, Z. M. 1991. Effect of Berberine on Synthesis of Platelet TXA2 and Plasma PGI2 in Rabbits. Chung-Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao, 12(6): 526-528.

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2733: Terashima, S., Shimizu, M., Nakayama, H., Ishikura, M., et al. 1990. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plant of "Sinfito," Potentilla candicans, and Further Synthesis of Their Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull 38(10):2733-2736, 1990

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:222: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FEL: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(4):364: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:24: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1058: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE10:115: Jim Duke's personal files

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE32:161: Jim Duke's personal files

JE32:173: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K25469: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LRN-JUL91: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN87: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):231: Jim Duke's personal files

PM239:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):257: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM60:421: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:414: Kobayashi, Y, Yamashita, Y., Fujii, N., Takaboshi, K., Kawakami, T., Kawamura, M., Mizukami, T., Nakano, H. 1995. Inhibitors of DNA Topoisomerase I and II Isolated From the Coptis Rhizomes. Planta Medica, 61: 414-418.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:62: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:117: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(4):132: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SPJ4:45: Al-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

W&M: Werbach & Murray, 1994.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

X10879476: Jim Duke's personal files

X11199135: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802204: Jim Duke's personal files

X15322253: Jim Duke's personal files

X15712986: Jim Duke's personal files

X15796587: Jim Duke's personal files

X18095647: Jim Duke's personal files

X579998: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace