Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Aconitum napellus L. (Ranunculaceae) -- Aconite, Bear's-Foot, Blue Rocket, European Aconite, Friar's Cap, Garden Monkshood, Garden Wolfsbane, Helmet Flower, Monkshood, Queen's Fettle, Soldier

Identifier

020530

Type of Spiritual Experience

Invisible input - healing
Hallucination

Number of hallucinations: 1

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Aconitum napellus L. (Ranunculaceae) -- Aconite, Bear's-Foot, Blue Rocket, European Aconite, Friar's Cap, Garden Monkshood, Garden Wolfsbane, Helmet Flower, Monkshood, Queen's Fettle, Soldier's Cap, Turk's Cap


Chemicals

ACONINE Root: DUKE1992A

Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic M11 ; Insecticide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ACONITIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Perfumery FEMA 1-30 ppm ARC

ACONITINE Root: DUKE1992A

(+)-Inotropic 0.1 mg/kg scu gpg HH2 ; Analgesic; Anesthetic PJB1(2):259 ; Antiinflammatory 411 ; Antineuralgic 0.1 g/man; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipyretic M11 ; Arrhythmigenic 0.1 mg/kg scu gpg; Bradycardic 0.01 mg/kg scu cat HH2 ; Calcium-Antagonist 50 ug/ml rat K22630 ; Cardiotonic 411 ; Cardiotoxic DUKE1992B ; Dermal JBH ; Diaphoretic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 400-500 ppb DUKE1992B ; Gastric-Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 0.01 mg/kg scu cat; Immunomodulator PR9:315 ; Insecticide 356 ; Mydriatic 400-500 ppb DUKE1992B ; Paralytic DUKE1992B ; Pediculicide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respiraparalytic DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue DUKE1992B ; Toxic PR14:401

ALKALOIDS Leaf 1,200 - 9,600 ppm DUKE1992A Root 2,000 - 15,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BENZACONINE Root: DUKE1992A

Insecticide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CITRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

EPHEDRINE Root: DUKE1992A

Adrenergic M29 ; Allergenic M29 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antianaphylactic PJB1(2):269 ; Antiappetant DUKE1992B ; Antiarachidonate PJB1(2):269 ; Antiasthmatic 15-60 mg/3-4 x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antibronchitic PJB1(2):269 ; Anticholinesterase PJB1(1):174 ; Antiedemic 30 mg/3-4x/day/man M29 ; Antiemphysemic PJB1(2):269 ; Antienuretic 60 mg/man/night M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic EMP5:193 ; Antihiccup 5-10 mg/ivn/man M29 ; Antihistaminic PJB1(2):269 ; Antiinflammatory PJB1(1):174 ; Antimyasthenic 30 mg/3x/day/man M29 ; Antinarcoleptic M29 ; Antirhinitic M29 ; Antisinusitic M29 ; Antisyncopic 25 mg/4 x/day/man M29 ; Antitussive 0.01 mg/kg SHT ; Antiviral EMP5:193 ; Bronchodilator 1.5-3 mg/kg orl dog BBE 5 mg/cat orl BBE ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cardiotonic 1 mg/kg ivn rat BBE ; Cerebrostimulant KCH ; CNS-Stimulant 20 mg/dog BBE ; Controlled HG19:15 ; Decongestant 411 ; Dermatitigenic M&R258 ; Diuretic LRN-JUN89 ; Hallucinogenic M29 ; Hypertensive 30 mg/man/day MAR ; Insecticide 356 ; Mydriatic M11 ; Myocardiotonic KCH ; Myorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirastimulant M29 ; Stimulant NIG ; Sympathomimetic M11 ; Tachycardic MAR ; Tracheorelaxant PJB1(2):269 ; Uterocontractant LRN-JUN89 ; Vasoconstrictor M29

FRUCTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

HOMOISOACONITINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HYPACONITINE Root: DUKE1992A

Analgesic JBH ; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Insecticide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

INOSITOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antialopecic DUKE1992B ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic? M29 ; Antineuropathic? 2 g/day WER ; Cholesterolytic 2,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic JBH ; Sweetener JBH ; Ubiquiot JAD

ISOCITRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISONAPELLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ITACONITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUCICULINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MALIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MALTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic JBH ; Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

MANNITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic X1482539 ; Anthelmintic WOI ; Antiglaucomic MAR ; Antiinflammatory WOI ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic M29 ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiradicular PCF:146 ; AntiReye's M29 ; Antispasmodic WOI ; Diuretic M11 ; Emetic MAR ; Flatugenic M29 ; Laxative; Nephrotoxic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sweetener JBH

MELLOBIOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MESACONITINE Root: DUKE1992A

Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic PJB1(1):180 ; Antiinflammatory PJB1(1):180 ; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Insecticide 356 ; Mydriatic DUKE1992B ; Paralytic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Purgative 0.3-0.5 mg/kg DUKE1992B ; Respirainhibitor DUKE1992B ; RNA-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue OMM

NAPELLINE Root: DUKE1992A

Cardiactive JBH ; Hypotensive JBH ; Insecticide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NAPELLONINE Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEOLINE Root: DUKE1992A

Insecticide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NEOPELLINE Root: DUKE1992A

Insecticide 356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

OXALIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

PICRANOTINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PICROACONITINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PSEUDACONITINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Cardiactive JBH ; Respiradepressant JBH

PYRRILIDONCARBONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

SPARTEINE Root: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient 411 DUKE1992B ; Antiarrhythmic LRN-SEP89 ; Antiganglionic 1 mg/kg ivn cat BBE ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant JPH150:5 ; Antiperoxidant JPH150:5 ; Antitachycardic 411 ; Bradycardic CAN ; Cardiodepressant 5 mg/kg ivn rbt BBE ; Cathartic DUKE1992B ; Curaroid 411 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic JNP39:444 ; Insecticide 356 ; Molluscicide DUKE1992B ; Oxytocic 411 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respiradepressant 411 ; Tachycardiagenic CAN ; Uterocontractant CAN

STARCH Root 250,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Absorbent M29 ; Antidote (Iodine) JBH ; Antinesidioblastosic M29 ; Emollient M29 ; Poultice M29

SUCCINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Additive FEMA 200-2,000 ARC ; Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Dye M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Commonsteps

References

356: Grainge, M. and Ahmed, S., Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1988, 470. Note: Author list various compounds as active principle, thus leading me to enter all the aconitine alkaloids, e.g, as insecticidal, though authors do not specifically say that all are insecticidal.

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP5:193: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

HG19:15: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP39:444: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JPH150:5: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K22630: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R258: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

OMM: Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF:146: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):174: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):180: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):259: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PR9:315: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT: Schulz, V, Hansel, R and Tyler, VE. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy - A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. 1st English Edition. Translated by Terry C. Telger. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. 306 pp.

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

X10879476: Jim Duke's personal files

X11199135: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X12090773: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802204: Jim Duke's personal files

X1482539: Jim Duke's personal files

X15712986: Jim Duke's personal files

X15796587: Jim Duke's personal files

X18095647: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace