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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) -- Milfoil, Yarrow

Identifier

019188

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) -- Milfoil, Yarrow


Chemicals

1,8-CINEOLE Leaf 24 - 960 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

2,3-DIHYDROACETOXYMATRICIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-HYDROXY-3,6,7,4'-TETRAMETHOXYFLAVONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-ACETOCYARTABSIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-ANELOOXYARTABSIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETYLBALCHANOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACHICEINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACHILLEINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Hemostat 500 mg/kg ivn rbt

ACHILLETINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACHILLICIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACHILLIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Herbicide IN35=100 uM TOX ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ACONITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Perfumery FEMA 1-30 ppm ARC

ALLO-OCIMENE Leaf 4 - 140 ppm DUKE1992A

Perfumery ARC

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 25 - 1,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINENE Leaf 3 - 130 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic PR14:623

ALPHA-THUJONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient CAN ; Antibacterial JEO7:271 ; Emmenagogue CAN ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Larvicide JNP49:941.1986 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ALUMINUM Plant 34 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

APIGENIN Plant: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; AntiADD LIB ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.57 ppm X11714299 IC50=9.52 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antiangiogenic 4 uM; Antiarrhythmic PT4:118 ; Antibacterial 452 ; Anticancer (Lung) X15947208 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antiherpetic 20-54 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=10-35 uM; AntiHIV IC50=143 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 IC72=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory = indomethacin IC~65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM BO2 ; Antimelanomic 1-50 uM; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.55 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 1.5 x Vit. E IC28.5=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiproliferant 1-50 uM IC50=155 uM JE91:65.2004 ; Antispasmodic EC50=1-5 uM; Antistress 10 mg/kg; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (Breast) BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Skin) MSC'96 ; Antiviral 20-54 ug/ml; Anxiolytic 10 mg/kg; Apoptotic 12-60 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC65=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist? BBA1115:69 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic FTS:1986 ; CNS-Depressant JNP67:359 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM IC50=<15 uM X10506109 IC>65=1,000 uM HHM7:7 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 IC50=9.5 uM JE91:65.2004 IC88=10 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC40=40 uM BO2 MIC=30 uM BO2 ; Diuretic JBH ; DNA-Protective X11752233 ; Estrogenic 16% genistein BO2 EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=1 uM X10923837 ; HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor X15947208 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=50-250 uM BO2 ; Hypotensive JBH ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X12909272 ; MAO-Inhibitor PH2 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Myorelaxant JBH ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15322261 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Nodulation-Signal JBH ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; P21-Inducer 10-70 uM BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PKC-Inhibitor IC50=10 uM MSC'96 ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Progestational X10989984 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=10-40 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 20 uM CLE120:213 ; Radioprotective PH2 ; Sedative 30-100 mg/kg PM61:213 ; Sunscreen MSC'96 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.27 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 50 ug/ml JB118:312 IC28=18 uM BO2 IC45=180 uM BO2 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 0.36 uM PM69:1125

APIGENIN-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARABINOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARTEMITIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Leaf 580 - 3,100 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Plant 100,000 - 125,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

AUSTRICIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AZULENE Leaf 7,140 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic IWU ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory PEP ; Antipyretic HG20:40 ; Antiseptic 6-500 VAL ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antiulcer ED50=150 (orl) DUKE1992B ; Hepatoregenerative CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BALCHANOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BENZALDEHYDECYANHYDRINGLYCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-PINENE Leaf 18 - 720 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETA-SITOSTEROL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETAINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antihomocystinuric; Antimyoatrophic PJB1(1) ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cardioprotective X11747976 ; Diuretic WO2 ; Emmenagogue WO2 ; Ethanolytic X11747976 ; Expectorant X15162365 ; Hepatoprotective; Lipotropic DUKE1992B ; Mucogenic X15162365 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BETONICINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory JBH ; Hemostat 411

BORNEOL Leaf 6 - 275 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

BORNYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 933 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Antibacterial LAF ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.09 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antiviral LAF ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 70-80 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative

BUTYRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticancer WER ; Antitumor WER ; Apoptotic BOI ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Nematistat 880 ug/ml NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Plant 8,670 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPHENE Leaf 15 - 600 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CAMPHOR Leaf 45 - 1,780 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiacne NIG ; Antidiarrheic 500 ug/ml WO2 ; Antidysenteric WO2 ; Antiemetic 100-200 mg man orl KCH ; Antifeedant IC50=5,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrositic MAR ; Antineuralgic MAR ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antiseptic M11 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.075 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant JE26:74 ; Convulsant RJH ; Cosmetic JBH ; Counterirritant MAR ; Decongestant NIG ; Deliriant M11 ; Ecbolic DUKE1992B ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Epileptigenic CAN ; Expectorant M29 ; Fungicide ED50=2.7 mM TOX ; Herbicide IC50=3.3-180 mM 438 ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge; Irritant JBH ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Occuloirritant M&R367 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=7.89 uM X9242356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirainhibitor M11 ; Respirastimulant KCH ; Rubefacient; Stimulant RJH ; Transdermal; Verrucolytic NIG ; Vibriocide 500 ug/ml WO2

CARBOHYDRATES Plant 713,000 - 752,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARYOPHYLLENE Leaf 4 - 160 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CASTICIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial (Synergic w artemisinin) JE32:162 IC50=24 uM POP:124 ; Parasiticide POP:124 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Plasmodicide POP:124 ; Protisticide POP:124

CEROTINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHAMAZULENE Plant 50 - 2,800 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic PJB1(1):170 ; Antiallergic LRN-MAR91 ; Antiinflammatory M11 ; Antileukotriene MAB ; Antioxidant PMP25:50 ; Antipyretic JBH ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antispasmodic PJB1(1):170 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vulnerary PJB1(1):170

CHAMAZULENE-CARBOXYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHOLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CHROMIUM Plant 25 ppm; DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CINEOLE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-DEHYDROMATRICARIA-ESTER Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Herbicide CPB38:3483 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

COBALT Plant 31 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPAENE Leaf 1.5 - 60 ppm DUKE1992A

Carminative PJB1(1):172

COUMARINS Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CUMINALDEHYDE Leaf 0.3 - 11 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA <1 ARC ; Fungicide FT62:86 ; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide AYL ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.05 mM JAF47:4574 ; Ulcerogenic ZEB

DEACETYLMATRICARIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELTA-CADINENE Leaf 0.2 - 8 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

DULCITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Sweetener JBH

EO Flower 700 - 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 250 - 14,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EUGENOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm; Allergenic M&R488 ; Analgesic M11 ; Anesthetic 200-400 PR4:93 ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM PR4:93 ; Antiarachidonate PJB1(2):269 ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL MBC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiedemic 100 PR4:95 ; Antiestrogenic X12495555 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosating PCF-I:200 ; Antioxidant 10 uM HHM7:7 IC65=30 ppm PCF:219 ; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM PM186:1986 IC50=9.2 mM POP:150 ; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l PMP22:233 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B 400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Antithromboxane LRN-JUL87 ; AntiTNF X10871845 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer FT71:S131 ; Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Apifuge 382 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg J14432 IC50=224 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR4:93 ; Carcinogenic? NIG ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM JNP65:1517 IC>97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 25 ug/ml PR4:93 ; Dermatitigenic M&R489 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; FLavor FEMA 10-500 ARC ; Fungicide PMP23:60 ; Hepatoprotective 100 ppm TOX107:39 ; Herbicide PMP23:60 ; Insecticide; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant; Juvabional 382 ; Larvicide JE26:72 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt GPH27:629 IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml NIG ; Trypsin-Enhancer LRN-DEC93 ; Ulcerogenic PR4:93 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vasodilator PR14:495 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

FARNESENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone JBH

FAT Plant 18,000 - 40,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 223,000 - 334,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Plant 69,000 - 201,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FOLACIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl PAM ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man PAM ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antineuropathic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antipsychotic M29 ; AntiSpina-Bifida DAS ; Hematopoietic M11 ; Uricosuric PAM ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PAM

FORMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X10826162 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisyncopic DUKE1992B ; Astringent M11 ; Corrosive ARC ; Counterirritant M11 ; FLavor FEMA 500-2,500 ARC ; Fungistat JBH ; Fungitoxic JBH ; Irritant M&R670 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Preservative ARC ; Toxic JBH

FURFURAL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic LAF ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

FURFURYL-ALCOHOL Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 10-100 ARC

GALACTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GAMMA-TERPINENE Leaf 9 - 370 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GLUCOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GUAIAZULENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic M29 ; Antiinflammatory W&W ; Antileprotic M29 ; Antipeptic DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic M29 ; Antiulcer CPB38:3355

HEPTADECANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HOMOSTACHYDRINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HUMULENE Leaf 0.5 - 22 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=86 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial

HYDROXYACHILLIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INOSITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antialopecic DUKE1992B ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic? M29 ; Antineuropathic? 2 g/day WER ; Cholesterolytic 2,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic JBH ; Sweetener JBH ; Ubiquiot JAD

INULIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor (diagnostic)=50 mg/kg/ivn/man M29 ; Anticolitic? JN129:1395S ; Antidiabetic EJC49S:S145 ; Antidiarrheic JN129:1395S ; Antiobesity? JN129:1395S ; Antiosteoporotic? JN129:1395S ; Bifidogenic EJC49S:S145 ; Chemopreventive (Breast Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Chemopreventive (Colon Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Expectorant PED ; Gastrostimulant EJC49S:S145 ; Hypocholesterolemic EJC49S:S145 ; Hypoglycemic EJC49S:S145 ; Immunostimulant; Laxative JN129:1395S ; Lipolytic; Prebiotic; Probiotic; Probiotigenic JN129:1395S

IRON Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOARTEMISIA-KETONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Irritant ZEB ; Narcotic ZEB ; Perfumery Fragrance ZEB

ISORHAMNETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial PMPP37:281 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiinflammatory 411 ; Antioxidant 411 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; MAO-Inhibitor PMID10813558 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer FCT36:623 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

ISOVALERIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-16 ARC ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery M11 ; Sedative; Tranquilizer KCH

KILOCALORIES Plant 2,900 /kg; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEUCODIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Leaf 4 - 170 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LUTEOLIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm FT64:131 IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic X11216484 ; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic X11216484 ; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF48:235 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticataract EC=3 ppm FT64:131 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin WIC ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic AJC31:37 ; Antimelanomic AJC31:37 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio EMP5:197 ; Antiproliferant X12224631 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM BO2 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Apoptotic 12-50 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X11216484 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM BO2 ; Diuretic PT5:1986 ; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective FT66:400 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAC9:158 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Myorelaxant AYL-84 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220 ; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml CPB38:1772

LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC31=1 uM PC23:1885 IC73=10 uM DUKE1992B ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiherpetic EMP5:204 ; Antiinflammatory BIS ; Antiviral EMP5:204 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MAGNESIUM Plant 1,920 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Plant 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MANNITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic X1482539 ; Anthelmintic WOI ; Antiglaucomic MAR ; Antiinflammatory WOI ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic M29 ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiradicular PCF:146 ; AntiReye's M29 ; Antispasmodic WOI ; Diuretic M11 ; Emetic MAR ; Flatugenic M29 ; Laxative; Nephrotoxic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sweetener JBH

MENTHOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic MAR ; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm JPP46:16 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiasthmatic MAB ; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiinflammatory MAR ; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic MAR ; Antipruritic JPP46:16 ; Antipyretic PJB1(1):180 ; Antirheumatic MAR ; Antisalmonella X12083863 ; Antiseptic 4 x phenol W&W ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antitartar X12537346 ; Antivaginitic FEL ; Antivulvitic FEL ; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman MAR ; Bronchomucolytic ACM:200 ; Bronchomucotropic JPP46:16 ; Bronchorrheic ACM:200 ; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; Ciliotoxic JPP46:16 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant KCH ; Congestant JPP46:16 ; Convulsant RJH ; Counterirritant DUKE1992B ; Decongestant? 11 mg/man JPP42:652 ; Dermatitigenic M&R654 ; Diaphoretic KCH ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JPP46:16 ; Gastrosedative M11 ; Irritant JPP46:16 ; Myorelaxant M29 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurodepressant JPP46:16 ; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat JPP46:16 ; Nociceptive JPP46:16 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Refrigerant JPP46:16 ; Rubefacient DUKE1992B ; Termiticide 382 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Vibriocide DUKE1992B

MILLEFIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MILLEFOLIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MOSCHATINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRCENE Leaf 0.5 - 20 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRISTIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

NIACIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

OLEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

P-CYMENE Leaf 9 - 370 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

PALMITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PENTACOSANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Plant 2,950 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PONTICAEPOXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Aedifuge DUKE1992B ; Insecticide 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

POTASSIUM Plant 17,800 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROAZULENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Plant 108,000 - 144,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 286,000 - 369,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 IC50=0.344 uM ZZZ18:623 IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic JBH ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM X11714299 IC50=7.5 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM JAF45:4505 IC50=55 uM EMP5:333 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM JIM127:546 ; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antianaphylactic PR4(5):201 ; Antiangiogenic EJP459:255 ; Antiarthritic COX ; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic X11020457 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM MED ; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract PM56(3):258 ; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day PAM ; Anticomplementary JNP65:1457 ; AntiCrohn's PAM ; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks X11272677 ; Antidepressant JMF6:391 ; Antidermatitic PAM ; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antiencephalitic EMP5:199 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrosarcomic JAF45:4505 ; Antiflu V&D ; Antigastric RR21:85 ; Antigonadotropic JBH ; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):171 ; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antihydrophobic V&D ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg FT5:1990 ; Antileishmanic IC50=64 JNP65:1457 ; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM BO2 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml MPT ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antimyocarditic EMP5:199 ; Antinitrosaminic PAL:339 ; Antinociceptive PR14:40 ; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E BO2 ED50=2.3 uM PR14:93 IC47=10 uM JMF5:1 IC96=300 ppm PCF ; Antipancreatitic JNU ; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antipermeability DUKE1992B ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64 JNP65:1457 ; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn PAM ; Antipodriac; Antipolio PAM ; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid PCF:51 ; Antiprostatitic JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithrombic PAL:339 ; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13 JNP65:1457 ; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF45:4505 ; Antitumor (Lung) X10918203 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter PAM ; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml JNP55:1732 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor NIG ; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml QRNM(SUMMER):91 ; Bradycardiac KCH ; Calmodulin-Antagonist PAM ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus NIG ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; COMT-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM BO2 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml PM56(6):677 IC82=100 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Differentiator 5.5 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic 10% genistein B02 ; Fungicide X10857921 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostat KCH ; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective FT67:200 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml JNP53(5):1239 ; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat JE27:243 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic X10404425 ; Insulinogenic PAM ; Juvabional 438 ; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM JAF38:688 IC50=0.1-5 uM DFN:154 ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer DUKE1992B ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) PR14:93 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Mutagenic HG22:27 ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15180920 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM X15832817 IC>50=125 uM JAF50:850 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM FNF ; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM FNF ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12144868 ; Phospholipase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; Plasmodicide HDN ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml PR11:281 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor PCF:14 ; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM BO2 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM CLE120:213 ; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM BO2 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM BO2 ; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr 505 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor X16737615 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM PM69:1125 IC50=10.6 ug/ml X12591129 IC50=>0.4 ug/ml CPB38:1772

QUERCETIN-GLYCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCITRIN Plant: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=0.67 mM/ K25469 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 0.1-100 uM 0.5-4 ug/ml IC50=2 uM CPB38:2733 IC50=64 uM rat SPJ4:45 IC55=0.1 uM PM56(3):257 IC55=0.15 uM; Antiarrhythmic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticataract PM239:1986 ; Antiedemic KCH ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiflu AYL ; Antihemorrhagic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antiinflammatory KCH ; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antioxidant IC50=120 uM PC27:972 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:76 ; Antistaphylococcic 0.412% HG40:24 ; Antithrombogenic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer JBH ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic LAF ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 200 uM HH2 ; Detoxicant LAF ; Diuretic KCH ; Dye M11 ; Hemostat JBH ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:189 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Insectiphile JBH ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; MAO-Inhibitor HG40:12 ; Paralytic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasopressor JE26:76

RESIN Plant 6,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Plant 5 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RUTIN Plant: DUKE1992A

5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

SABINENE Leaf 30 - 1,225 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SALICYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 724.6 uM PR7:252 ; Analgesic; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antidermatotic DUKE1992B ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antiichthyosic M29 ; Antiinflammatory PHZ46:156 ; Antineuralgic MAD ; Antioncychomycotic M29 ; Antioxidant KCH ; Antiperiodic DUKE1992B ; Antipodagric DUKE1992B ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic PJB1(2):285 ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic ALH ; Antitumor PCF:49 ; Antitympanitic M11 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Comedolytic M29 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX2000 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Fungicide MIC 1,000 ug/ml FFJ11:257 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:158 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Keratolytic JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Thermogenic 130 ppm SCI237:1601 ; Tineacide M29 ; Ulcerogenic DUKE1992B

SELENIUM Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

SILICON Plant 45 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic DAS ; Antionychyotic PIL ; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective PIL

SODIUM Plant 82 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

STACHYDRINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Emmenagogue LRN-MAR91 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Lactagogue LRN-MAR91 ; Oxytocic? DUKE1992B ; Systolic-Depressant JBH

STIGMASTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

SUCCINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Additive FEMA 200-2,000 ARC ; Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Dye M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TANNIN Plant 28,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

TERPINEN-4-OL Leaf 10 - 430 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TERPINEOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic 10-100 ug/ml PM67:564 ; Anesthetic PM67:564 ; Antiallergenic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticancer JNU ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antiseptic M11 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Cholagogue DUKE1992B ; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; Expectorant DUKE1992B ; Insecticide X11997977 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Larvicide X11997977 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THIAMIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THIOPHENES Flower 167 ppm; PR5(2):59.1991 Leaf 167 ppm; PR5(2):59.1991

No activity reported.

THUJONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient CAN ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antibacterial JEO7:271 ; Antiseptic CAN ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.127 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Cerebrodepressant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant 40 mg/kg RJH ; Counterirritant JBH ; Emmenagogue CAN ; Epileptigenic DUKE1992B ; Hallucinogenic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=22 mM 438 ; Neurotoxic ARO95:24 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirainhibitor DUKE1992B ; Toxic ARC

TIN Plant 26 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiacne DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Taenicide MAR

TRANS-DEHYDROMATRICARIA-ESTER Leaf: DUKE1992A

Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TRICOSANE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRICYCLENE Leaf 0.6 - 27 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRIGONELLINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) 411 ; Anticancer (Liver) 411 ; Antihyperglycemic IWU ; Antimigraine PMP25:56 ; Antiseptic IWU ; Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Liver); Epidermal-Stimulant HG50:31 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic 50 mg/kg orl rat CAN 500-3,000 mg/man/day MAR ; Mutagenic MED97 ; Osmoregulator PC44:1037 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic HG50:31

VIBURNITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WATER Plant 823,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Plant: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Yarrow

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARO95:24: Jim Duke's personal files

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

AYL-84: Jim Duke's personal files

B02: Jim Duke's personal files

BBA1115:69: Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1115: 69, 1991.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

COX2000: Newmark, T. M. and Schulick, P. 2000. Herbal Cox-2 Inhibition - Nature's Challenge to Arthritis, Cancer & Alzheimer's Disease. Hohm Press, Prescott AZ.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CPB38:2733: Terashima, S., Shimizu, M., Nakayama, H., Ishikura, M., et al. 1990. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plant of "Sinfito," Potentilla candicans, and Further Synthesis of Their Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull 38(10):2733-2736, 1990

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB38:3355: Yanagisawa, T., Kosakai, K., Tomiyama, T., Yasunami, M., and Takase, K. 1990. Studies on Anti-ulcer Agents. II. Synthesis and Anti-ulcer Activities of 6-Isopropylazulene-1-sodium Sulfonate Derivatives. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(12): 3355-3358, 1990.

CPB38:3483: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:154: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJC49S:S145: Jim Duke's personal files

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EJP459:255: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP5:204: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 204.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:158: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 158.

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FCT36:623: Yannai, S., Day, A. J., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1998. Characterization of Flavonoids as Monofunctional or Bifunctional Inducers of Quinone Reductase in Murine Hepatoma Cell Lines. Food Chem Toxicol, 36(8): 623-630.

FEL: Jim Duke's personal files

FFJ11:257: Jim Duke's personal files

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT62:86: Singh*, G., Upadhyay, R.K. 1990. Fungitoxic Activity of Cumaldehyde, Main Constituent of the Cuminum cyminum Oil. Fitoterapia 62(1): 86, 1991.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:131: Shin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:400: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:200: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT71:S131: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

FTS:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GPH27:629: Chen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:40: HerbalGram No. 20, page 40.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG22:27: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:24: Jim Duke's personal files

HG50:31: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

J14432: Jim Duke's personal files

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAC9:158: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3106: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JB118:312: Azuma, Y., Onishi, Y., Sato, Y., Kizaki, H. 1995. Effects of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors With Different Modes of Action on Topoisomerase Activity and Death of IL-2-Dependent CTLL-2-Cells. J Biochemistry, 118: 312-318.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE32:162: Jim Duke's personal files

JE91:65.2004: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO7:271: J. Ess. Oil Res. 7: 271.

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JIM127:546: Jim Duke's personal files.

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:391: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN129:1395S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:941.1986: Misra, L.N. and Singh, S.P. Alpha-Thujone, The Major Component Of The Essential Oil From Artemisia vulgaris Growing Wild In Nilgiri Hills. Journal of Natural Products, 49: 941, 1986.

JNP53(5):1239: Nakane, H., Fukushima, M., and Ono*, K. Differential Inhibition Of Reverse Transcriptase And Various DNA Polymerases By Digallic Acid And Its Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5): 1234-1240, 1990.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1457: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:359: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:652: Eccles, R., et al. 1989. The effects of oral administration of (-)-menthol on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation of airflow in subjects suffering from nasal congestion associated with the common cold. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 652-654, 1990.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K25469: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LIB: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-DEC93: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-93.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JUL87: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jul-87.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRN-MAR91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Mar-91.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R488: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R489: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R654: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R670: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

M30: Martindale's 30th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MED97: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:339: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PC44:1037: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF-I:200: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:14: Naim, M., Zehavi, U., Nagy, S., and Rouseff, R.L. Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Off-Flavor Precursors in Citrus Fruits and Their Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.14.

PCF:146: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:219: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):170: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):172: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):180: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):285: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM186:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM239:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(2):171: Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., and Dorfman, P. 1989. Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Injury in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes: A Model for Studying Anti-Hepatotoxic Crude Drugs. Planta Medica 56(2): 171-173, 1990.

PM56(3):257: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):677: Matsukawa, Y., et al. The Effect of Quercetin and Other Flavonoids on Cell Cycle Progresssion and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 56(6): 677, 1990.

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:213: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM67:564: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID10813558: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP22:233: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:50: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:56: Jim Duke's personal files

PMPP37:281: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:124: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:150: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR11:281: Ibewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:40: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:495: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:93: Seidel, V., Verholle, M., Malard, Y., Tillequin, F., Fruchart, J-C., Duriez, P., Bailleul, F., Teissier, E. 2000. Phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra L. Inhibit in vitro LDL Peroxidation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 93-98.

PR4(5):201: Meli, R., Autore, G., Di Carlo, G., Capasso, F. Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 201, 1990.

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PR4:93: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.

PR4:95: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 95.

PR5(2):59.1991: Jim Duke's personal files

PR7:252: Toyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

PT4:118: Jim Duke's personal files

PT5:1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

QRNM(SUMMER):91: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RR21:85: Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SCI237:1601: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SPJ4:45: Al-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TOX107:39: Jim Duke's personal files

TR42:511: Jim Duke's personal files

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO2: Wealth of India.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZZZ18:623: Mao, X. M., Zhang, J. Q. 1993. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi , 18(10): 623-624.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace