Cannabis use and first-episode psychosis: relationship with manic and psychotic symptoms, and with age at presentation
Type of Spiritual Experience
This is not actually about cannabis, it is about drug taking in the young.
The hallucinations came from the other drugs. Cannabis seems to make the young dippy, like alcohol does. And according to the survey does not do permanent damage - although it may have been more helpful if the researchers had categorised their cannabis a bit more into the various types, as some is anything but safe.
After all would one compare a glass of sherry with a bottle of methylated spirits? - both contain alcohol.
A description of the experience
Psychol Med. 2014 Feb;44(3):499-506. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713000883. Epub 2013 May 24.
Cannabis use and first-episode psychosis: relationship with manic and psychotic symptoms, and with age at presentation.
Stone JM1, Fisher HL2, Major B3, Chisholm B4, Woolley J4, Lawrence J5, Rahaman N6, Joyce J7, Hinton M8, Johnson S8, Young AH1; MiData Consortium.
- 1Imperial College London, London, UK.
- 2Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK.
- 3EQUIP, East London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
- 4Wandsworth Early Intervention Service, South West London and St George's Mental Health NHS Trust, London, UK.
- 5Southwark Early Intervention Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
- 6Westminster and Kensington & Chelsea Early Intervention Service, London, UK.
- 7Lewisham Early Intervention Service, London, UK.
- 8University College London, London, UK.
Cannabis use has been reported to be associated with an earlier onset of symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis, and a worse outcome in those who continue to take cannabis. In general, studies have concentrated on symptoms of psychosis rather than mania. In this study, using a longitudinal design in a large naturalistic cohort of patients with first-episode psychosis, we investigated the relationship between cannabis use, age of presentation to services, daily functioning, and positive, negative and manic symptoms.
Clinical data on 502 patients with first-episode psychosis were collected using the MiData audit database from seven London-based Early Intervention in psychosis teams. Individuals were assessed at two time points--at entry to the service and after 1 year. On each occasion, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale disability subscale were rated. At both time points, the use of cannabis and other drugs of abuse in the 6 months preceding each assessment was recorded.
Level of cannabis use was associated with a younger age at presentation, and manic symptoms and conceptual disorganization, but not with delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms or daily functioning. Cannabis users who reduced or stopped their use following contact with services had the greatest improvement in symptoms at 1 year compared with continued users and non-users. Continued users remained more symptomatic than non-users at follow-up.
Effective interventions for reducing cannabis use may yield significant health benefits for patients with first-episode psychosis.