Mental illness and copper imbalance
Type of spiritual experienceHallucination (2)
Kayser–Fleischer rings (KF rings) are dark rings that appear to encircle the iris of the eye. They are due to copper deposition in part of the cornea (Descemet's membrane) as a result of particular liver diseases. They are named after Dr. Bernhard Kayser and Dr. Bruno Fleischer, the German doctors who first described them in 1902 and 1903. Initially thought to be due to the accumulation of silver, they were first demonstrated to contain copper in 1934.
A description of the experience
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1991;91(10):100-2. [Diagnosis of 2 complex psychiatric cases of hepato-cerebral dystrophy]. [Article in Russian] Bronin SIa
The author describes two cases of associated hepatocerebral dystrophy and mental diseases where the difficulties in the diagnosis were determined, in the first case, by the manifestation of hepatocerebral dystrophy (HCD) after a severe craniocerebral and spinal injury, and in the second case, by the fact that the disease began from mental disorders whereas the additional neurological ones were attributed to the treatment with neuroleptics.
Emphasis is laid on the necessity of taking into account potential HCD in all the cases of long-existing disorders such as muscular rigidity, hyperkineses, speech and swallowing disorders, and so forth as well as on the necessity of examining in such cases Kayser-Fleischer rings, copper metabolism and liver function.