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Dr Duke's list of cystine containing plants to boost the immune system

Identifier

012486

Type of spiritual experience

Background

Cystine is the amino acid formed by the oxidation of two cysteine molecules that covalently link via a disulfide bond. Human hair and skin contain approximately 10-14% cystine by mass, as such it is an essential nutrient. It was discovered in 1810 by William Hyde Wollaston but was not recognized as being derived of proteins until it was isolated from the horn of a cow in 1899.

The disulfide link is readily reduced in the body to give the corresponding thiol cysteine, and cysteine is a semi essential amino acid. “Because of the facility of the thiol-disulfide exchange, the nutritional benefits and sources of cystine are identical to those for the more-common cysteine. Disulfide bonds cleave more rapidly at higher temperatures.”[Wikipedia]

But according to Dr Duke, one of its more interesting properties is that it acts as an adjuvant – a natural booster of the immune system.

A description of the experience

Dr. Duke's
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

 

 

Plant parts with Adjuvant Activity
from the chemical CYSTINE


 

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) MOENCH -- Okra; found in Fruit

Allium cepa L. -- Onion, Shallot; found in Bulb

Allium sativum var. sativum L. -- Garlic; found in Bulb

Amaranthus sp. -- Pigweed; found in Leaf

Anacardium occidentale L. -- Cashew; found in Seed

Ananas comosus (L.) MERR. -- Pineapple; found in Fruit

Apium graveolens L. -- Celery; found in Pt

Arachis hypogaea L. -- Groundnut, Peanut; found in Seed

Arctium lappa L. -- Burdock, Gobo, Great Burdock; found in Root

Artocarpus altilis (PARKINS.) FOSBERG -- Breadfruit; found in Fruit, Seed

Asparagus officinalis L. -- Asparagus; found in Shoot

Avena sativa L. -- Oats; found in Seed

Basella alba L. -- Vinespinach; found in Leaf

Bertholletia excelsa BONPL. -- Brazilnut, Brazilnut-Tree, Creamnut, Paranut; found in Seed

Beta vulgaris subsp. subsp. vulgaris -- Beet, Beetroot, Garden Beet, Sugar Beet; found in Root

Brassica chinensis L. -- Bok-Choy, Celery Cabbage, Celery Mustard, Chinese Cabbage, Chinese Mustard, Chinese White Cabbage, Pak-Choi; found in Leaf

Brassica napus var. napobrassica var. napobrassica (L.) REICHB. -- Rutabaga, Swede, Swedish Turnip; found in Root

Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. KOCH -- Black Mustard; found in Leaf

Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. var. botrytis L. -- Cauliflower; found in Flower, Leaf

Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. var. capitata L. -- Cabbage, Red Cabbage, White Cabbage; found in Leaf

Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera var. gemmifera DC -- Brussel-Sprout, Brussels-Sprouts; found in Leaf

Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L. -- Kohlrabi; found in Stem

Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. var. acephala DC -- Curly Kale, Kale, Kitchen Kale, Scotch Kale; found in Leaf

Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. L. -- Collards, Cow Cabbage, Spring-Heading Cabbage, Tall Kale, Tree Kale; found in Leaf

Brassica rapa var. rapa -- Rapini, Seven-Top Turnip, Turnip; found in Root

Cajanus cajan (L.) HUTH -- Pigeonpea; found in Seed

Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE -- Tea; found in Leaf

Capsicum annuum L. -- Bell Pepper, Cherry Pepper, Cone Pepper, Green Pepper, Paprika, Sweet Pepper; found in Fruit

Capsicum frutescens L. -- Cayenne, Chili, Hot Pepper, Red Chili, Spur Pepper, Tabasco; found in Fruit

Castanea dentata (MARSHALL) BORKH. -- American Chestnut; found in Seed

Castanea mollisima BLUME -- Chinese Chestnut; found in Seed

Castanea sativa MILLER -- European Chestnut; found in Seed

Chenopodium album L. -- Lambsquarter; found in Plant

Cicer arietinum L. -- Chickpea, Garbanzo; found in Seed

Cichorium endivia L. -- Endive, Escarole; found in Leaf

Citrus paradisi MacFAD. -- Grapefruit; found in Fruit

Citrus reticulata BLANCO -- Mandarin, Tangerine; found in Fruit

Citrus sinensis (L.) OSBECK -- Orange; found in Fruit

Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVAUGH -- Chaya; found in Leaf

Coffea arabica L. -- Coffee; found in Seed

Colocasia esculenta (L.) SCHOTT -- Taro; found in Leaf, Root

Corchorus olitorius L. -- Jew's Mallow, Mulukiya, Nalta Jute; found in Leaf

Cucumis sativus L. -- Cucumber; found in Fruit

Cucurbita pepo L. -- Pumpkin; found in Fruit, Seed

Cucurbita spp -- Summer Squash; found in Fruit

Daucus carota L. -- Carrot; found in Root

Dioscorea pentaphylla L. -- Mountain Yam; found in Root

Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH. -- Buckwheat; found in Seed

Ficus carica L. -- Echte Feige (Ger.), Feigenbaum (Ger.), Fico (Ital.), Fig, Figueira (Port.), Figuier Commun (Fr.), Higo (Sp.), Higuera Comun (Sp.); found in Fruit

Foeniculum vulgare MILLER -- Fennel; found in Fruit

Fragaria spp -- Strawberry; found in Fruit

Ginkgo biloba L. -- Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree; found in Seed

Hordeum vulgare L. -- Barley, Barleygrass; found in Seed

Ipomoea aquatica FORSSKAL -- Swamp Cabbage, Water Spinach; found in Leaf

Ipomoea batatas (L.) LAM -- Sweet Potato; found in Root

Juglans cinerea L. -- Butternut; found in Seed

Lablab purpureus (L.) SWEET -- Bonavist Bean, Hyacinth Bean, Lablab Bean; found in Seed

Lactuca sativa L. -- Lettuce; found in Leaf

Larrea tridentata (SESSE & MOC. ex DC.) COV. -- Chaparral, Creosote Bush; found in Plant

Lens culinaris MEDIK. -- Lentil; found in Seed, Sprout Seedling

Lupinus albus L. -- White Lupine; found in Seed

Lycopersicon esculentum MILLER -- Tomato; found in Fruit

Macadamia spp -- Macadamia; found in Seed

Malus domestica BORKH. -- Apple; found in Plant

Mangifera indica L. -- Mango; found in Fruit

Manihot esculenta CRANTZ -- Cassava, Tapioca, Yuca; found in Root

Melia azedarach L. -- Chinaberry; found in Seed

Moringa oleifera LAM. -- Ben Nut, Benzolive Tree, Drumstick Tree, Horseradish Tree, Jacinto (Sp.), Moringa, West Indian Ben; found in Shoot

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. -- Cowage, Velvetbean; found in Seed

Murraya sp -- None; found in Fruit

Musa x paradisiaca L. -- Banana, Plantain; found in Fruit

Nasturtium officinale R. BR. -- Berro, Watercress; found in Herb

Nelumbo nucifera L. -- Water Lotus; found in Rhizome, Seed

Nigella sativa L. -- Black Caraway, Black Cumin, Fennel-Flower, Nutmeg-Flower, Roman Coriander; found in Seed

Ocimum basilicum L. -- Basil, Cuban Basil, Sweet Basil; found in Leaf

Oenothera biennis L. -- Evening-Primrose; found in Seed

Pachyrhizus erosus RICH. ex DC. -- Yambean; found in Tuber

Panax quinquefolius L. -- American Ginseng, Ginseng; found in Plant

Papaver bracteatum L. -- Great Scarlet Poppy; found in Seed

Papaver somniferum L. -- Opium Poppy, Poppyseed Poppy; found in Seed

Persea americana MILLER -- Avocado; found in Fruit

Phaseolus lunatus L. -- Butter Bean, Lima Bean; found in Seed

Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. var. vulgaris -- Black Bean, Dwarf Bean, Field Bean, Flageolet Bean, French Bean, Garden Bean, Green Bean, Haricot, Haricot Bean, Haricot Vert, Kidney Bean, Navy Bean, Pop Bean, Popping Bean, Snap Bean, String Bean, Wax Bean; found in Fruit, Seed , Sprout Seedling

Phoenix dactylifera L. -- Date Palm; found in Fruit

Phyllanthus emblica L. -- Emblic, Myrobalan; found in Fruit

Pinus edulis ENGELM -- Pinyon Pine; found in Seed

Pinus pinea L. -- Italian Stone Pine, Pignolia; found in Seed

Pistacia vera L. -- Pistachio; found in Seed

Pisum sativum L. -- Pea; found in Fruit, Seed

Portulaca oleracea L. -- Purslane, Verdolaga; found in Herb

Prunus armeniaca L. -- Apricot; found in Fruit

Prunus domestica L. -- Plum; found in Fruit

Prunus dulcis (MILLER) D. A. WEBB -- Almond; found in Seed

Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH -- Peach; found in Fruit

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. -- Asparagus Pea, Goa Bean, Winged Bean; found in Leaf, Seed , Tuber

Pyrus communis L. -- Pear; found in Fruit

Raphanus sativus L. -- Radish; found in Root

Sambucus canadensis L. -- American Elder, American Elderberry, Elderberry, Sweet Elder; found in Fruit

Secale cereale L. -- Rye; found in Seed

Sesamum indicum L. -- Ajonjoli (Sp.), Beni, Benneseed, Sesame, Sesamo (Sp.); found in Seed

Sinapis alba L. -- White Mustard; found in Seed

Solanum melongena L. -- Aubergine, Eggplant; found in Fruit

Solanum tuberosum L. -- Potato; found in Tuber

Sophora pachycarpa SCHRENK. -- Siberian Pachycarpa; found in Seed

Spinacia oleracea L. -- Spinach; found in Plant

Thymus vulgaris L. -- Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant

Tilia sp. -- Basswood, Lime, Linden; found in Flower

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. -- Alholva (Sp.), Bockshornklee (Ger.), Fenugreek, Greek Clover, Greek Hay; found in Seed

Triticum aestivum L. -- Wheat; found in Seed

Vaccinium corymbosum L. -- Blueberry; found in Fruit

Valerianella locusta (L.) LATERRADE -- Corn Salad, Lamb's Lettuce; found in Plant

Vicia faba L. -- Broadbean, Faba Bean, Habas; found in Seed

Vigna aconitifolia (JACQ.) MARECHAL -- Mat Bean, Moth Bean; found in Seed

Vigna angularis (WILLD.) OHWI & H. OHASHI -- Adzuki Bean; found in Seed

Vigna radiata (L.) WILCZEK -- Green Gram, Mungbean; found in Seed, Sprout Seedling

Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) VERDC. -- Asparagus Bean, Pea Bean, Yardlong Bean; found in Fruit, Seed

Vitis vinifera L. -- European Grape, Grape, Grapevine, Parra (Sp.), Vid (Sp.), Vigne Vinifere (Fr.), Weinrebe (Ger.), Wine Grape; found in Fruit

Withania somnifera (L.) DUNAL -- Ashwagandha; found in Fruit

Zea mays L. -- Corn; found in Seed

Zingiber officinale ROSCOE -- Ginger; found in Rhizome

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts and Symbols used in the text or image

Activities